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Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337408332

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337408332
Textbook Problem
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Building Better Bones Tiffany, shown in FIGURE 35.10, was born with multiple fractures in her arms and legs. By age six, she had undergone surgery to correct more than 200 bone fractures. Her fragile, easily broken bones are .symptoms or osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in a gene for collagen. As bones develop, collagen forms a scaffold for deposition of mineralized bone tissue. The scaffold forms improperly in children with OI. FIGURE 35.10 also shows the results of a test of a new drug. Treated children, all less than two years old were compared to similarly affected children of the same age who were not treated with the drug.

Chapter 35, Problem 1DAA, Building Better Bones Tiffany, shown in FIGURE 35.10, was born with multiple fractures in her arms , example  1

Chapter 35, Problem 1DAA, Building Better Bones Tiffany, shown in FIGURE 35.10, was born with multiple fractures in her arms , example  2

Chapter 35, Problem 1DAA, Building Better Bones Tiffany, shown in FIGURE 35.10, was born with multiple fractures in her arms , example  3

FIGURE 3.5.10 A clinical trial of a drug treatment for osteogenesis imperfect (OI). OI affects the child shown at night. Nine children with received the drug. Six others were untreated Controls. Surface area of certain vertebrae were measured before and after treatment. Fractures occurring during the 12 months of the trial were also recorded.

An increase in vertebral area during the 12-month period of the study indicates bone growth. How many of the treated children showed such an increase?

Summary Introduction

To determine: The number of treated children who showed an increase in the vertebral area during the 12-month period.

Introduction: Bones are the specialized connective tissues that surround the living cells. An adult consists of 206 bones in their body. The main functions of bone are storage of minerals, to aid in the movement, to protect the organs, and for producing the blood cells through the red marrow. Osteogenesis imperfecta is also known as brittle bone disease. It is a group of genetic disorders that can adversely affect the bones of our body. The main symptom of this disorder is easy breakage of bones. It is mainly caused due to the mutation in the collagen genes.

Explanation

Person T had multiple fractures in her legs and arms. At the age of six, she underwent a surgery in order to correct more than 200 bone fractures. Her brittle, easily breakable bones are a symptom of a genetic disorder called Osteogenesis imperfecta. It is caused due to the mutation in the collagen genes. During the development of bones, collagen forms a scaffold for the deposition of mineralized bone tissue. The development of scaffolds is inappropriately formed in children with Osteogenesis imperfecta.

Refer Fig. 35.10, “A clinical trial of a drug treatment for Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)” in the textbook. The researchers had conducted clinical trials by testing a new drug for the treatment of Osteogenesis imperfecta. The clinical trial was carried out for a period of 12 months. They selected children under two years old. A comparison was also done between treated and untreated controls. The treated group contained nine children who were administered with the new drug and untreated group was the control group that contained six children. The vertebral area was also calculated before and afterward the treatment. The fractures that took place during the 12 months of the trial were also noted.

The number of treated children who showed an increase in the vertebral area after the 12-month period was nine. This is because all the treated children had a sudden increase in the vertebral area in cm2. For example, Child 3 initially had a vertebral area of about 6.7 and the final vertebral area was about 16.5. Also, the overall mean calculation was initially 11.4 and was increased to 14.9 after the treatment.

Conclusion

All the nine treated children showed an increase in the vertebral area after 12-month period of the study.

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