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Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337408332

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Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337408332
Textbook Problem
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Risks of Hypertension Eleni Rapsomaniki and her colleagues analyzed medical records of 1.25 million people in the United Kingdom to see how hypertension affects the risk of cardiovascular disorders. They looked at records of people who at 30 years old had no history of heart disease or stroke, although some had high blood pressure. By looking at which of these people later had a heart attack or stroke, the researchers were able to estimate the lifetime risks of these disorders in people with, and without high blood pressure. FIGURE 36.19 shows the researchers’ estimates of the lifetime risk for heart attack and for transient ischemic attack (TIA), a type of stroke.

Chapter 36, Problem 1DAA, Risks of Hypertension Eleni Rapsomaniki and her colleagues analyzed medical records of 1.25 million

FIGURE 36.19 Lifetime risks of heart attack and TIA (a type of stroke), with and without hypertension at age 30. A transient ischaemic attack (TIA), sometimes called a mini-stroke, is caused by a temporary blockage of a blood vessel that supplies blood to the brain.

What is the risk that someone without hypertension at age 30 will have a heart attack by age 85? What is the comparable risk for someone with hypertension at age 30?

Summary Introduction

To determine: The risk that someone without hypertension at age 30 will have a heart attack by age 85.

Introduction: High blood pressure or hypertension is the high force exerted by the blood against the walls of blood vessels. It can lead to many severe complications like increasing the risk of stroke, atherosclerosis, heart diseases, and death. The normal range of blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg, where the first number represents the systolic pressure and the second number represents the diastolic pressure.

Explanation

According to the study based on the effect of hypertension, the medical research implies the fact that an individual without hypertension at the age of 30 will have 4 percent chance to develop a heart attack by the age of 85. There are no symptoms or signs appear during the early stage of life. However, symptoms or signs may appear during the late period of life.

Conclusion

The risk that someone without hypertension at age 30 will develop a heart attack by age 85 is about 4 percent.

Summary Introduction

To find: The comparable risk for someone with hypertension at age 30.

Introduction: High blood pressure or hypertension is a medical condition where the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. Hypotension is the medical term for low blood pressure. Age, body weight, sex, food habits, alcoholism, drug addiction, and physical inactivity are some of the major causes for this condition to occur.

Explanation

The risk of hypertension at age 30 is about 7 percent. The chance for cardiac arrest is very high for the people who had hypertension at the age of 30 itself. The chance for cardiac arrest is very less in people with no hypertension at the age of 30. This indicates the fact that maintaining a healthy diet and regular exercise would help to get rid of hypertension at a young age. As a result, they will not develop heart-related issues in their late period of life.

Conclusion

The risk that an individual without hypertension at age 30 will develop a heart attack by age 85 is only about 4 percent, while for the ones with hypertension at age 30 is about 7 percent.

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