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Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337408332

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337408332
Textbook Problem
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Activated complement proteins ________.

  1. a. puncture cells
  2. b. promote inflammation
  3. c. attract macrophages
  4. d. all of the above

Summary Introduction

Concept introduction: When an antigen encounters the body, the complement will be activated. Mammals have around 30 types of complement proteins. Some of these proteins recognize and bind to the antibodies that are clustered on the surface of the cell. The binding initiates the reaction series and it will finally result in the cleavage of the complement protein called C3. The activation of the complement triggers the two hallmarks of the infection such as inflammation and fever.

Explanation

Reasons for correct answer:

If the antigen is present in the body, it will activate the complement proteins in an inactive form. The activated protein undergoes series of reactions. These proteins can cover the cells and the particles to increase the uptake by the phagocyte. These proteins can also kill the cells by puncturing the plasma membrane. The phagocytes that engulf the microorganisms release the cytokines and local signaling molecules that initiate the inflammation.

Option d. is given as “all of the above”. As the activated complement proteins can puncture cells, promote the inflammation, and attract the macrophages, option d. is correct.

Reason for the incorrect answers:

Option a. is given as “puncture cells”...

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