Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892



Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

Summarize the various ways that chemical signals reachingplant cells are converted to changes in cell functioning.

Summary Introduction

To review:

The different methods in which chemical signals that reach the plant cells get converted into cell functions.


The phytohormones are small chemical compounds, which regulate the growth, flowering and metabolic activities of the plants. The plant hormones like auxin, cytokinins, and gibberellins promote the growth of plant parts, whereas abscisic acid inhibits the growth of plant parts. These hormones bind to receptors that initiate the signaling cascade leading to the activation of certain genes inside the nucleus of the cell. The receptors of the hormones may be present inside or on the cell membrane.


There are two types of signal response pathways that lead to the conversion of chemical signals into the functional activity in plants. In one of the response pathway, the growth factors (GF) and plant hormones bind to receptors that are present on the plasma membrane of the target cell.

For example, the ABA (abscisic acid) hormone binds to the plasma membrane receptors of guard cells. Binding of ABA to the receptors initiates release of potassium ion from the guard cells, followed by the water release. This response triggers stomata to get closed within few minutes. The ABA receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that activate phospholipase C enzyme.

The second messengers like IP3 (inositol triphosphate) gets synthesized in response to the phospholipase C enzyme...

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