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Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

Discuss Concepts In some cases of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the impulsive, erratic behavior typical of affected people can be calmed with drugs that stimulate certain brain neurons. Based on what you have learned about neurotransmitter activity in this chapter, can you suggest a neural basis for this effect?

Summary Introduction

To review:

Impulsive and erratic behavior, symptom of ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), which can be resolved with the help of some drugs. The administration of such drugs results in the stimulation of brain neurons. The neural basis behind this effect is to be explained.

Introduction:

ADHD is a neural disorder in which a person finds difficulty to pay attention and control their impulsive behaviors. The patients are also sometimes restless and constantly active, and do not sit still for a longer time than their usual counterparts. It is normally seen in childhood but adults can also get affected by this disorder. ADHD is not fully curable, although there are certain drugs that can reduce the ADHD symptoms.

Explanation

The human brain contains many nerve cells known as neurons. There is a gap between these neurons, which is known as a synapse. The neurotransmitters present in the synaptic vesicle of the terminal branch of the neurons are known as chemical messengers. They are used for communication between the neurons. There are many neurotransmitters with different functions present in the human nervous system. The neurotransmitters are diffused through the synapse, bind with receptors present in a postsynaptic neuron, and excite that neuron. The effects of neurotransmitters are short-lived, they are active for a small span of time and then, get recycled back to the terminal branch of the neurons.

It has been seen that people with ADHD have a low level of norepinephrine and dopamine...

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