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Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337408332

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337408332
Textbook Problem
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Human Adaptation to a Starchy Diet The human AMY-1 gene encodes salivary amylase, an enzyme that breaks down starch. The number of copies of this gene varies, and people who have more copies generally make more enzyme. In addition, the average number of AMY-1 copies differs among cultural groups.

George Perry and his colleagues hypothesized that duplications of the AMY-1 gene would be selectively advantageous in cultures in which starch is a large part of the diet. To test this hypothesis, the scientists compared the number of copies of the AMY-1 gene among members of seven cultural groups that differed in their traditional diets. FIGURE 39.9 shows their results.

Chapter 39, Problem 2DAA, Human Adaptation to a Starchy Diet The human AMY-1 gene encodes salivary amylase, an enzyme that

FIGURE 39.9 Number of copies of the AMY-1 gene among members of cultures with traditional high-starch or low-starch diets. The Hadza, Biaka, Mbuti, and Datog are tribes in Africa. The Yakut live in Siberia.

None of the Mbuti (rain-forest hunter–gathers) had more than 10 copies of AMY-1. Did any European Americans?

Summary Introduction

To determine: Whether any of the European Americans have more than 10 copies of AMY-1 genes.

Introduction: An enzyme present in the saliva that initiates or mediates the hydrolysis of starch into simpler sugar molecules is called as the salivary amylase. AMY-1 is the gene that encodes for the salivary amylase enzyme. Humans possess this gene, but copy number of that particular gene highly depends on their dietary habits. Varied number of the copy numbers of AMY1 genes is observed among the people. The people consuming high starchy diets have more copies of AMY1 gene when compared those with less starchy diets.

Explanation

Refer figure 39.9 “Number of copies of AMY-1 gene among members of cultures with high-starch or low-starch diets” in the textbook. It gives the information about cumulative proportion of individuals versus AMY-1 diploid gene copy number found in them. The variations in copy numbers of salivary amylase (AMY-1) gene were tested among people of seven traditional groups that differ in their traditional food habits. They chose individuals with high starchy diet (Hadza, European American, and Japanese) and with low starchy diet (Yakut, Mbuti, Biaka, and Datog)...

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