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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337399425
Textbook Problem

Give three examples of gaseous elements that exist as diatomic molecules. Give three examples of gaseous elements that exist as monatomic species.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The three gaseous elements that exist as diatomic molecules and three exist as mono-atomic molecules should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Molecules are formed by the atoms. Based on the number of atoms present in it they are classified as follows:

  1. Mono atomic molecule: it consists only one atom like noble gas molecules, He, Ne etc.
  2. Di- atomic molecule: it consists two atoms like oxygen, O2.
  3. Tri- atomic molecule: it consists three atoms like ozone, O3.
  4. Poly atomic molecules: it consists more than 3 atoms like sulfur S8.
Explanation

Molecules of oxygen gas, nitrogen gas and chlorine gas are said to be diatomic because molecules of both elements consist two atoms in a molecule.

These are also homo-nuclear molecules due to present of identical atoms in it.

In oxygen atom, there are 6 valence electrons, it can share 2 electrons with other oxygen atom to form O-double bond-O and O2. In a molecule of oxygen gas, there are total of 12 valence electrons, out of which 4 are involved in bonding and 8 electrons are present as lone pair (two lone pairs on each O atom).

Similarly, in nitrogen atom, there are 5 valence electrons, it can share three electrons with other nitrogen atom to form N-triple bond-N and N2. In a molecule of nitrogen gas, there are total of 10 valence electrons, out of which 6 are involved in bonding and 4 electrons are present as lone pair (one lone pair on each N atom).

Now, in chlorine atom, there are 7 valence electrons, it can share one electron with other chlorine atom to form Cl-single bond-Cl and Cl2

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