Tonya Martin, CMA and controller or the Parts Division of Gunderson Inc., was meeting with Doug Adams, manager of the division. The topic of discussion was the assignment of overhead costs to jobs and their impact on the division’s pricing decisions. Their conversation was as follows: Tonya: Doug, as you know, about 25% of our business is based on government contracts, with the other 75% based on jobs from private sources won through bidding. During the last several years, our private business has declined. We have been losing more bids than usual. After some careful investigation, I have concluded that we are overpricing some jobs because of improper assignment of overhead costs. Some jobs are also being underpriced. Unfortunately, the jobs being overpriced are coming from our higher-volume, labor-intensive products, so we are losing business. Dong: I think I understand. Jobs associated with our high-volume products are being assigned more overhead than they should be receiving. Then when we add our standard 40% markup, we end up with a higher price than our competitors, who assign costs more accurately. Tonya: Exactly. We have two producing departments, one labor-intensive and the other machine-intensive. The labor-intensive department generates much less overhead than the machine-intensive department. Furthermore, virtually all of our high-volume jobs are labor-intensive. We have been using a plantwide rate based on direct labor hours to assign overhead to all jobs. As a result, the high-volume, labor-intensive jobs receive a greater share of the machine-intensive department’s overhead than they deserve. This problem can be greatly alleviated by switching to departmental overhead rates. For example, an average high-volume job would be assigned $100,000 of overhead using a plantwide rate and only $70,000 using departmental rates. The change would lower our bidding price on high-volume jobs by an average of $42,000 per job. By increasing the accuracy of our product costing, we can make better pricing decisions and win back much of our private-sector business. Doug: Sounds good. When can you implement the change in overhead rates? Tonya: It won’t take long. I can have the new system working within four to six weeks—certainly by the start of the new fiscal year. Doug: Hold it. I just thought of a possible complication. As I recall, most of our government contract work is done in the labor-intensive department. This new overhead assignment scheme will push down the cost on the government jobs, and we will lose revenues. They pay us full cost plus our standard markup. This business is not threatened by our current costing procedures, but we can’t switch our rates for only the private business. Government auditors would question the lack of consistency in our costing procedures. Tonya: You do have a point. I thought of this issue also. According to my estimates, we will gain more revenues from the private sector than we will lose from our government contracts. Besides, the costs of our government jobs are distorted. In effect, we are overcharging the government. Doug: They don’t know that and never would unless we switch our overhead assignment procedures. I think I have the solution. Officially, let’s keep our plantwide overhead rate. All of the official records will reflect this overhead costing approach for both our private and government business. Unofficially. I want you to develop a separate set of books that can be used to generate the information we need to prepare competitive bids for our private-sector business. Required: 1. Do you believe that the solution proposed by Doug is ethical? Explain. 2. Suppose that Tonya decides that Doug’s solution is not right and objects strongly. Further suppose that, despite Tonya’s objections, Doug insists strongly on implementing the action. What should Tonya do?

BuyFind

Managerial Accounting: The Corners...

7th Edition
Maryanne M. Mowen + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337115773
BuyFind

Managerial Accounting: The Corners...

7th Edition
Maryanne M. Mowen + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337115773

Solutions

Chapter 4, Problem 67C
Textbook Problem

Tonya Martin, CMA and controller or the Parts Division of Gunderson Inc., was meeting with Doug Adams, manager of the division. The topic of discussion was the assignment of overhead costs to jobs and their impact on the division’s pricing decisions. Their conversation was as follows:

Tonya: Doug, as you know, about 25% of our business is based on government contracts, with the other 75% based on jobs from private sources won through bidding. During the last several years, our private business has declined. We have been losing more bids than usual. After some careful investigation, I have concluded that we are overpricing some jobs because of improper assignment of overhead costs. Some jobs are also being underpriced. Unfortunately, the jobs being overpriced are coming from our higher-volume, labor-intensive products, so we are losing business.

Dong: I think I understand. Jobs associated with our high-volume products are being assigned more overhead than they should be receiving. Then when we add our standard 40% markup, we end up with a higher price than our competitors, who assign costs more accurately.

Tonya: Exactly. We have two producing departments, one labor-intensive and the other machine-intensive. The labor-intensive department generates much less overhead than the machine-intensive department. Furthermore, virtually all of our high-volume jobs are labor-intensive. We have been using a plantwide rate based on direct labor hours to assign overhead to all jobs. As a result, the high-volume, labor-intensive jobs receive a greater share of the machine-intensive department’s overhead than they deserve. This problem can be greatly alleviated by switching to departmental overhead rates. For example, an average high-volume job would be assigned $100,000 of overhead using a plantwide rate and only $70,000 using departmental rates. The change would lower our bidding price on high-volume jobs by an average of $42,000 per job. By increasing the accuracy of our product costing, we can make better pricing decisions and win back much of our private-sector business.

Doug: Sounds good. When can you implement the change in overhead rates?

Tonya: It won’t take long. I can have the new system working within four to six weeks—certainly by the start of the new fiscal year.

Doug: Hold it. I just thought of a possible complication. As I recall, most of our government contract work is done in the labor-intensive department. This new overhead assignment scheme will push down the cost on the government jobs, and we will lose revenues. They pay us full cost plus our standard markup. This business is not threatened by our current costing procedures, but we can’t switch our rates for only the private business. Government auditors would question the lack of consistency in our costing procedures.

Tonya: You do have a point. I thought of this issue also. According to my estimates, we will gain more revenues from the private sector than we will lose from our government contracts. Besides, the costs of our government jobs are distorted. In effect, we are overcharging the government.

Doug: They don’t know that and never would unless we switch our overhead assignment procedures. I think I have the solution. Officially, let’s keep our plantwide overhead rate. All of the official records will reflect this overhead costing approach for both our private and government business. Unofficially. I want you to develop a separate set of books that can be used to generate the information we need to prepare competitive bids for our private-sector business.

Required:

  1. 1. Do you believe that the solution proposed by Doug is ethical? Explain.
  2. 2. Suppose that Tonya decides that Doug’s solution is not right and objects strongly. Further suppose that, despite Tonya’s objections, Doug insists strongly on implementing the action. What should Tonya do?

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Chapter 4 Solutions

Managerial Accounting: The Cornerstone of Business Decision-Making
Ch. 4 - Carver Company uses a plantwide overhead rate...Ch. 4 - What is an overhead variance? How is it accounted...Ch. 4 - Is the cost of a job related to the price charged?...Ch. 4 - If a company decides to increase advertising...Ch. 4 - How can a departmental overhead system be...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) Describe the difference between...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) Assume that a company has decided...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) Why is it important to identify and...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) Identify some possible causal...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) Explain the difference between the...Ch. 4 - Which of the following statements is true? a....Ch. 4 - The ending balance of which of the following...Ch. 4 - In a normal costing system, the cost of a job...Ch. 4 - The predetermined overhead rate equals a. actual...Ch. 4 - The job-order cost sheet is a subsidiary account...Ch. 4 - Applied overhead is a. an important part of normal...Ch. 4 - The overhead variance is overapplied if a. actual...Ch. 4 - Which of the following is typically a job-order...Ch. 4 - Which of the following is typically a...Ch. 4 - When materials are requisitioned for use in...Ch. 4 - When a job is completed, the total cost of the job...Ch. 4 - The costs of a job are accounted for on the a....Ch. 4 - Wilson Company has a predetermined overhead rate...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4A) When a job costing 2,000 is finished...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) Those departments responsible for...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) Those departments that provide...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) An example of a producing department...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) An example of a support department...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) The method that assigns support...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) The method that assigns support...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) The method that assigns support...Ch. 4 - Predetermined Overhead Rate, Overhead Application...Ch. 4 - Overhead Variance (Over- or Underapplied), Closing...Ch. 4 - Use the following information for Brief Exercises...Ch. 4 - Use the following information for Brief Exercises...Ch. 4 - Prepare Job-Order Cost Sheets, Predetermined...Ch. 4 - Use the following information for Brief Exercises...Ch. 4 - Use the following information for Brief Exercises...Ch. 4 - Predetermined Overhead Rate, Overhead Application...Ch. 4 - Overhead Variance (Over- or Underapplied), Closing...Ch. 4 - Use the following information for Brief Exercises...Ch. 4 - Use the following information for Brief Exercises...Ch. 4 - Prepare Job-Order Cost Sheets, Predetermined...Ch. 4 - Use the following information for Brief Exercises...Ch. 4 - Use the following information for Brief Exercises...Ch. 4 - Job-Order Costing versus Process Costing a....Ch. 4 - Job-Order Costing versus Process Costing a. Auto...Ch. 4 - Calculating the Predetermined Overhead Rate,...Ch. 4 - Calculating the Predetermined Overhead Rate,...Ch. 4 - Calculating Departmental Overhead Rates and...Ch. 4 - Job-Order Costing Variables On July 1, Job 46 had...Ch. 4 - Source Documents For each of the following...Ch. 4 - Applying Overhead to Jobs, Costing Jobs Jagjit...Ch. 4 - Applying Overhead to Jobs, Costing Jobs Gorman...Ch. 4 - Balance of Work in Process and Finished Goods,...Ch. 4 - Job-Order Cost Sheets, Balance in Work in Process...Ch. 4 - Cost Flows Consider the following independent...Ch. 4 - Job Cost Flows Roseler Company uses a normal...Ch. 4 - Calculation of Work in Process and Cost of Goods...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4A) Journal Entries Yurman Inc. uses a...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) Direct Method of Support Department...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) Sequential Method of Support...Ch. 4 - Overhead Application and Job-Order Costing Heurion...Ch. 4 - Job Cost, Source Documents Spade Millhone...Ch. 4 - Calculating Ending Work in Process, Income...Ch. 4 - Overhead Applied to Jobs, Departmental Overhead...Ch. 4 - Overhead Rates, Unit Costs Folsom Company...Ch. 4 - Calculate Job Cost and Use It to Calculate Price...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4A) Unit Cost, Ending Work in Process,...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4A) Journal Entries, Job Costs The...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4A) Predetermined Overhead Rates,...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4A) Overhead Application, Journal...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4A) Journal Entries, T-Accounts Lowder...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) Support Department Cost Allocation...Ch. 4 - (Appendix 4B) Support Department Cost Allocation:...Ch. 4 - Overhead Assignment: Actual and Normal Activity...Ch. 4 - Tonya Martin, CMA and controller or the Parts...

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