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Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

2nd Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305079243
Chapter 4, Problem 92AE
Textbook Problem
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Which of the following molecules have net dipole moments? For the molecules that are polar, indicate the polarity of each bond and the direction of the net dipole moment of the molecule.

a. CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4

b. CO2, N2O

c. PH3, NH3

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The molecules having a permanent dipole moment are to be identified.

Concept introduction: Dipole moment is defined as the charge separation between two atoms in a covalent bond or between two ions in ionic bond. It is used to determine the polarity of atoms or ions. If the value of dipole moment is zero then the molecule is said to be non-polar and if the value of dipole moment is not zero then the molecule is said to be polar.

Also a bond can be considered polar if there is some electronegativity difference between the atoms.

To determine: The molecule CH2Cl2,CHCl3 and CCl4 have a permanent dipole moment or not.

Explanation of Solution

If the dipole moments of each atom cancel out, then overall dipole moment will be zero. This type of compound forms non-polar bond.

For CH2Cl2 molecule, The structure is

The electronegativity of chlorine (Cl) atom is higher than hydrogen (H) atom. The bond dipoles of CH atom are opposite and cancel out but bond dipoles of CCl bond are aligned axially and do not cancel out. Hence the structure of CH2Cl2 is not symmetrical and contains net dipole moment due to CCl bond.

For CH2Cl2 molecule, The structure is

The electronegativity of chlorine (Cl) atom is higher than hydrogen (H) atom. The resultant bond dipoles of CH bond of CCl bond are aligned downward and do not cancel out

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The molecules having a permanent dipole moment are to be identified.

Concept introduction: Dipole moment is defined as the charge separation between two atoms in a covalent bond or between two ions in ionic bond. It is used to determine the polarity of atoms or ions. If the value of dipole moment is zero then the molecule is said to be non-polar and if the value of dipole moment is not zero then the molecule is said to be polar.

Also a bond can be considered polar if there is some electronegativity difference between the atoms.

To determine: The molecule CO2 and N2O has a permanent dipole moment or not.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The molecules having a permanent dipole moment are to be identified.

Concept introduction: Dipole moment is defined as the charge separation between two atoms in a covalent bond or between two ions in ionic bond. It is used to determine the polarity of atoms or ions. If the value of dipole moment is zero then the molecule is said to be non-polar and if the value of dipole moment is not zero then the molecule is said to be polar.

Also a bond can be considered polar if there is some electronegativity difference between the atoms.

To determine: The molecule PH3 and NH3 has a permanent dipole moment or not.

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Chapter 4 Solutions

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach
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