Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892



Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

In the human response to temperature or pain:

a. all Ca2+ channels act as pain receptors.

b. cold receptors are activated between 27°C and 37°C.

c. pain receptors decrease the rate at which they send out actionpotentials if the pain is constant.

d. nociceptors activated by capsaicin transmit pain messages to the brain.

e. the CNS releases glutamate or substance P to dull the painsensation.

Summary Introduction


Temperature is detected by thermoreceptors in the form of cold or heat. The nociceptors are pain receptors present in the skin and certain internal organs of body. The pain receptors receive signals from damaged skin and transmit those signals to the brain. They are non-adaptive, that is, a person cannot bear extreme pain for a very long period of time. Analgesics are used to cure pain temporarily.


Explanation/justification for the correct answer:

Option (d) states that capsaicin is a chemical that is present in hot pepper. When a person eats hot pepper, the pain receptors in the throat, mouth, and nose get activated, and they send signals to the brain. In response to the pain stimulus, the brain releases endorphins that act as painkillers. They invoke a temporary feeling of euphoria, which is a feeling of relief. This is the reason due to which some people get addicted to hot pepper. Hence, option (d) is the correct answer.

Explanation for incorrect answer:

Option (a) states that the calcium ion channels open in response to an action potential that is generated across the muscle membrane, which helps in the contraction of muscles. Several signal transductions utilize calcium ion channels, like the protein kinase C pathway in which calcium ion channels are opened. Calcium ion channels also open during the fertilization of male and female gametes...

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