Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892



Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

Structures in the vertebrate ear are activated by sound waves in the following order:

a. oval window, tympanic membrane, semicircular canals, Golgitendon organ, incus, malleus, stapes.

b. organ of Corti, malleus, incus, stapes, auditory nerve, tympanic membrane.

c. eustachian tube, round window, vestibular canal, tympaniccanal, cochlear canal, oval window, pinna.

d. basilar membrane, tectorial membrane, otoliths, utricle, saccule, malleus, cochlea.

e. pinna, tympanic membrane, malleus, incus, stapes, ovalwindow, cochlear duct.

Summary Introduction


Terrestrial organisms have well established auditory structures that allow the sound vibrations to pass through the auditory canal and reach the sensory hair cells. The hair cells are also called stereocilia that bend in response to sound waves and generate action potential due to opening of potassium ion channels. The potassium ion channels repolarize the neuron membrane and carry the signals along the auditory neurons to the auditory cortex of the brain. Several structures are present in vertebrate ear that help in sound transmission and detection. The human ear represents all the mammalian auditory structures.


Explanation/justification for the correct answer:

Option (e) states that the sound waves first get concentrated in pinna that is the outermost covering of human ear. The waves then hit a thin membrane in the auditory canal, which is called tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane is followed by middle ear that contains tiny bones those are maleus, incus and stapes.

The sound waves travel through these bones in a similar manner in which they are arranged, that is, the sound waves first travel toward maleus, then incus, and then toward stapes. The stapes is attached to an elastic membrane called oval window. The sound waves travel from three bones toward the oval window and then finally into the cochlear duct that is located inside the inner ear. Hence, option (e) is the correct answer.

Explanation for incorrect answer:

Option (a) states that the oval window is located at the end of stapes bone in the middle ear. Thus, the oval window cannot be the first structure of ear through which the sound waves travel. The Golgi tendon organ and semicircular canals are the part of inner ear and are the last structures to which the sound waves travel...

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