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Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

The variety of color seen by humans is directly dependent on the:

a. activation of three different opsins in cones.

b. transmission of an image to separate brain hemispheres by the optic chiasm.

c. transmission of impulses from rods across the lateralgeniculate nuclei.

d. lateral inhibition by amacrine cells.

e. light stimulation of all photoreceptor types equally.

Summary Introduction

Introduction:

The retina of the vertebrate eye contains two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones. Each of them responds to a different type of visual stimuli. For instance, rods get activated in the presence of dim light while cones get activated in the presence of bright light. Rods help in the spatial vision of objects in dim light while cones allow us to observe different colors in bright light. The photoreceptors send signals through optic fiber to the visual cortex of the brain.

Explanation

Explanation/justification for the correct answer:

Option (a) states that the cone photoreceptors allow color vision in most of the vertebrates. While most mammals contain only two types of cone cells, the primates and humans have at least three types of cone cells, which are green, red, and blue. All these cells have the same type of retina but different types of opsins. The difference between the opsins lies in their range of light absorption. The blue cone cells receive light in the range of 445 nanometers (nm), the green receive light in the range of 535 nm, and the red cone cells absorb light in the 570 nm range. Hence, option (a) is the correct answer.

Explanation for incorrect answer:

Option (b) states that the vision from left eye is registered in the right cerebral cortex, and the vision from right eye is registered in the left visual cortex of the brain. Further, both the information are processed by the optic chiasm that integrates the images into one, and the brain perceives the image as a single image. The color of the object is not a concern of the optic chiasm...

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