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Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337408332

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337408332
Textbook Problem
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Birth Defect Multiple Birth Carrying multiple offspring at the same time increases the risk of some birth defects. FIGURE 42.16 shows the results of Yiwei Tang’s study of birth defects reported in Florida from 1996 to 2000. Tang compared the incidence of various defects among single and multiple births. She calculated the relative risk for each type of defect based on type of birth, and corrected for other difference that might increase risk such as maternal age, income, race, and medical care during pregnancy. A relative risk at less than 1 means that multiple births pose less risk of that defect occurring. A relative risk greater than 1 means multiple births are more likely to have a defect.

Chapter 42, Problem 3DAA, Birth Defect Multiple Birth Carrying multiple offspring at the same time increases the risk of some

FIGURE 42.16 Prevalence, per 10,000 live births, of various types of birth defects among and single birth. Relative risk for each defect is given after researchers adjusted for the mother’s age, race, previous adverse pregnancy, as well as the infant’s sex and number of siblings.

Tang found that multiple have more than twice the risk of single newborn for one type of defect. Which type?

Summary Introduction

To explain: The type of defect that is more than twice risk to occur in the multiple-births than in single newborns.

Concept introduction: During the gestation period, the mother can have single birth or multiple births. Single birth is where only one fetus is carried during the gestation period in the womb. Multiple births are where more than one fetus is carried during the gestation period such as twins, triplets, quadruplets, and more. Carrying more than one fetus in the womb results in the insufficient supply of nutrient to the developing fetus. These fetuses become still-born or born with abnormalities.

Explanation

Scientist YT studied the correlation between birth defects and multiple births in Florida from 1996 to 2000. The scientist calculated the birth defect’s relative risk with factors including the type of birth, maternal age, economy, race, and medical care provided during pregnancy. The relative risks were calculated with a scale of 1...

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