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Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

Which of the following statements about endocrine targeting and reception is correct?

a. The idea that one hormone affects one type of tissue is illustrated when epinephrine binds to smooth muscle cells in blood vessels, as well as to beta cells in heart muscle.

b. The idea that one hormone affects one type of tissue is illustrated when epinephrine cannot activate both the receptors on liver cells and the beta receptors of heart muscle.

c. The idea that a target cell can respond to more than one hormone is illustrated by a vertebrate liver cell responding to insulin and glucagon.

d. The idea that a minute concentration of hormone can cause widespread effects demonstrates the specificity of cells for certain hormones.

e. The idea that the response to a hormone is the same among different target cells is shown when different liver cells are activated by insulin.

Summary Introduction

Introduction:

The endocrine glands are those glands that release their secretions directly into the blood instead of secreting it in a duct. The examples of the endocrine glands are the pituitary gland, pineal gland, ovaries, testis, pancreas, parathyroid, thyroid gland, and hypothalamus. The hormones are released from the endocrine gland and reach their target tissues by circulating in the bloodstream.

Explanation

Justification for the correct answer:

Option (c) states that the idea that a target cell can respond to more than one hormone is illustrated by a vertebrate liver cell responding to insulin and glucagon. This option is correct as a single target cell can have receptors for different hormones. The liver cells have receptors for both glucagon and insulin. Insulin increases the uptake of glucose, whereas the glucagon stimulates the breakdown of glycogen. Hence, option (c) is correct.

Justification for the incorrect answers:

Option (a) states that the idea that one hormone affects one type of tissue is illustrated when epinephrine binds to smooth muscle cells in blood vessels, as well as to beta cells in heart muscle. This is false, as in this case, the epinephrine is binding to more than one type of tissue. The heart muscles are composed of cardiac muscles and smooth muscles that are two different types of tissue. So, it is an incorrect option.

Option (b) states that the idea that one hormone affects one type of tissue is illustrated when epinephrine cannot activate both the receptors on liver cells and the beta receptors of the heart muscle...

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