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Alarming Eyespots Section 1.6 described how a peacock butterfly will, when threatened, open its wings to reveal two huge eyespots that are hidden when the butterfly is a t rest. By one hypothesis, eyespots frighten a predatory bird by mimicking the eyes or the bird’s predators. Alternatively, the sudden appearance of the spots may act by simply startling the bird. To differentiate between these two possibilities, Martin Olofsson presented peacock butterflies with or without eyespots painted over to domestic chickens. He then recorded whether the chickens gave an alarm call that is normally given upon sighting a ground predator. FIGURE 43.9 shows the results. FIGURE 43.9 Response of domestic chicken to the defense display of a peacock butterfly (shown above). Butterflies were with or without eyespots painted over. All chickens were previously unfamiliar with these butterflies. When eyespots were visible, how many birds gave the alarm call? How many did not?

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Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337408332
BuyFind

Biology: The Unity and Diversity o...

15th Edition
Cecie Starr + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337408332

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 43, Problem 1DAA
Textbook Problem

Alarming Eyespots Section 1.6 described how a peacock butterfly will, when threatened, open its wings to reveal two huge eyespots that are hidden when the butterfly is a t rest. By one hypothesis, eyespots frighten a predatory bird by mimicking the eyes or the bird’s predators. Alternatively, the sudden appearance of the spots may act by simply startling the bird. To differentiate between these two possibilities, Martin Olofsson presented peacock butterflies with or without eyespots painted over to domestic chickens. He then recorded whether the chickens gave an alarm call that is normally given upon sighting a ground predator. FIGURE 43.9 shows the results.

Chapter 43, Problem 1DAA, Alarming Eyespots Section 1.6 described how a peacock butterfly will, when threatened, open its , example  1

Chapter 43, Problem 1DAA, Alarming Eyespots Section 1.6 described how a peacock butterfly will, when threatened, open its , example  2

FIGURE 43.9 Response of domestic chicken to the defense display of a peacock butterfly (shown above). Butterflies were with or without eyespots painted over. All chickens were previously unfamiliar with these butterflies.

When eyespots were visible, how many birds gave the alarm call? How many did not?

Expert Solution
Summary Introduction

To determine:  The number of birds that gave the alarm call.

Introduction: Aggressive mimicry is a kind of mimicry in which the predators or parasites share the similar signals to avoid them being correctly identified from the predators.

Explanation of Solution

Organisms defend themselves using the aggressive mimicry like peacock butterflies. They open their wings to reveal their large eyespots that are hidden when the butterfly is at rest. The hypothesis on the predators mimicry states that the eyespots frighten a predatory bird mimicking the eyes of the bird’s predators to avoid themselves from the risk of being hunted. Person R presented peacock butterflies with or without the eyespots painted over the domestic chickens. They also recorded whether the chickens gave an alarm call to sighting the predator.

Refer to Fig. 43.9 “Response of domestic chickens to the defense display of a peacock butterfly” in the text book. The graphical representation shows the number of butterflies with or without eyespots painted over in X-axis and their treatment was given in Y-axis. When the eyespots were visible, the number of birds that gave an alarm call was approximately 12 to 14.

Conclusion

When the eyespots were visible, the number of birds that gave an alarm call was 12 to 14.

Expert Solution
Summary Introduction

To determine: The number of birds that did not give an alarm call when the eyespots were visible.

Introduction: Information transmission is done through communication signals. These signals persist if the response benefits the sender and the receiver. If a sender or receiver fails to send signals, then any one of the individuals will be affected.

Explanation of Solution

Organisms defend themselves using the aggressive mimicry like peacock butterflies. They open their wings to reveal their large eyespots that are hidden when the butterfly is at rest. The hypothesis on the conspicuousness of predators mimicry states that the eyespots frighten a predatory bird mimicking the eyes of the bird’s predators to prevent themselves from the risk of being hunted. Person R presented peacock butterflies with or without the eyespots painted over the domestic chickens. They also recorded whether the chickens gave an alarm call to sighting the predator.

Refer Fig. 43.9 “Response of domestic chickens to the defense display of a peacock butterfly” in the text book. The graphical representation shows the number of butterflies with or without eyespots painted over in X-axis and their treatment was given in Y-axis. The number of birds that remained silent was approximately 10 to 12.

Conclusion

When the eyespots were visible, the number of birds that remained silent was approximately 10 to 12.

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