Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892



Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in a gene for collagen. As bones develop, collagen forms a scaffold for deposition of mineralized bone tissue. In children with OI, the scaffold forms improperly, causing them to be born with multiple fractures in their fragile bones and to require many corrective surgeries. Table 1 and Table 2 show the results of an experimental test of a new drug. Treated children with OI, all less than 2 years old, were compared to similarly affected children of the same age who were not treated with the drug.

TABLE 1 Effect of Drug on Bone Properties in Children with OI

Vertebral Area, in cm2
Treated Child (Before Treatment) (After Treatment) Fractures Per Year
1 14.7 16.7 1
2 15.5 16.9 1
3 16.7 16.5 6
4 17.3 11.8 0
5 13.6 14.6 6
6 19.3 15.6 1
7 15.3 15.9 0
8 19.9 13.0 4
9 10.5 13.4 4
Mean 11.4 14.9 2.6

TABLE 2 Bone Properties in Children with OI Who Received No Drug Treatment

Vertebral Area, in cm2
Control Child (Initial) (Final) Fractures Per Year
1 18.2 13.7 4
2 16.5 12.9 7
3 16.4 11.3 8
4 13.5 17.7 5
5 16.2 16.1 8
6 18.9 17.0 6
Mean 16.6 13.1 6.3

How many of the untreated children showed an increase?

Summary Introduction

To review:

A 12-month study that indicates bone growth due to an increase in the vertebral area among children having osteogenesis imperfecta (OI).


Osteogenesis is the disorder of the bones in the human body due to the malfunction of certain genes. These genes affect a protein called collagen that helps in making the bones strong, leading to osteogenesis. Collagen produces structural support for cell attachment (scaffolding) as the bones develop. People suffering from OI have their scaffolding weakened and thus, become prone to bone damage.


An increase in the vertebral area during the 12-month period of the study indicates bone growth as per the data is shown below:

An experiment was conducted in which a few selected children with OI were observed for an increase in bone growth without any support of drug treatment...

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