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Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

Compared with vertebrates, most invertebrates:

a. lead more mobile lives.

b. require a higher level of oxygen.

c. have more complex layers of cells.

d. have blood and interstitial fluid mixing directly in body spaces.

e. require faster delivery and greater quantities of nutrients.

Summary Introduction

Introduction:

Circulatory system helps in the distribution of nutrients and oxygen from the external environment into the body. In return, it expels waste products and carbon dioxide from the body. The circulatory system varies from simple animals to complex animals.

Answer

Correct answer:

Have blood and intestinal fluid mixing directly in body spaces.

Explanation

Justification/explanation for the correct answer:

Option (d) is, have blood and intestinal fluid mixing directly in body spaces. The invertebrate animals have open circulatory system, where the contraction of the heart results in the pumping of blood like fluid called hemolymph through the arteries. hemolymph is released directly into the body spaces called sinuses. In sinuses, hemolymph and intestinal fluid get mixed up and there is no clear difference between them. Hence, option (d) is correct.

The explanation for the incorrect answers:

Option (a) is, lead to more mobile lives. Vertebrates show more complex locomotive organs. They have bipedal as well as tetra pedal digits for movement. Invertebrates show less mobility than vertebrates. So, it is an incorrect option.

Option (b) is, require a higher level of oxygen. The vertebrates due to its highly evolved physiological and anatomical structure require a higher level of oxygen than lesser evolved invertebrates. So, it is an incorrect option.

Option (c) is, have a more complex layer of cells. Vertebrates have three germ layer of cells whereas some invertebrates show only two germ layer of cells. Hence, the vertebrates have a more complex layer of cells. So, it is an incorrect option.

Option (e) is, require faster delivery and greater quantities of nutrients. The circulatory system in invertebrates is not complex. They require less quantity of nutrients and its delivery to tissues. Whereas, the vertebrates have a complex double circulatory system. So, it is an incorrect option.

Hence, options (a), (b), (c), and (e) are incorrect.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the open circulatory system in invertebrate animals shows the mixing up of blood and intestinal fluid into the body spaces called sinuses.

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