Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892



Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

Discuss Concepts HIV wreaks havoc with the immune system by attacking helper T cells and macrophages. Would the impact be altered if the virus attacked only macrophages? Explain.

Summary Introduction

To review:

HIV attacks helper T cells and macrophages, and wreaks havoc on the immune system. The altered impact when the virus attacks only the macrophages.


HIV (human immune deficiency virus) is a pathogen of humans. This virus as suggested by name; this virus causes the immune system deficient by attacking the immune cells (helper T cells and macrophages). The person infected with HIV becomes susceptible to other diseases as the immunity of that person is reduced.


HIV attacks helper T-cells and macrophages by interacting with the CD-4 receptors present on their surface. The virus releases its content (capsid, genome that is single stranded RNA, enzymes- reverse transcriptase, protease, and integrase) into the cytosol of the host cells after interaction.

The virus now replicates in the host cell cytoplasm, then assembles and is released from the cells to infect new cells...

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