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Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

As a speed skater finishes the last lap of a race:

a. his diaphragm and rib muscles contract when he exhales.

b. positive pressure brings air into his lungs.

c. his lungs undergo an elastic recoil when he inhales.

d. his tidal volume is at vital capacity.

e. his residual volume momentarily reaches zero.

Summary Introduction

Introduction:

The maximum volume of air that the lungs can hold at a time is called TLC or total lung capacity. TLC is the sum of VC (vital capacity) and RV (residual volume). The VC is the volume of air breathed out after the deepest inspiration and is the sum of IRV (inspiratory reserve volume), TV (tidal volume), and ERV (expiratory reserve volume). Here, IRV is the maximum volume of air that can be inspired; TV is the tidal volume of air that moves into and out of the lungs during quiet breathing; ERV is the maximum volume of air that can be expired from the lungs; and RV is the volume of air that remains in the lungs after maximum exhalation. The changes in lung volumes are significant during sports and other physical activities. Speed skating is a competitive sport of ice skating, in which skaters race each other.

Explanation

Justification for the correct answer:

Option (d) states that his tidal volume is at vital capacity. This is a true statement because when physical activity increases, the tidal volume also increases to maximum to meet the body’s demand for oxygen. This maximum tidal volume is called the vital capacity of an individual. The maximum amount of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after maximum inspiration or inhalation is called VC or vital capacity. Hence, option (d) is correct.

Justification for the incorrect answers:

Option (a) states that his diaphragm and rib muscles contract when he exhales. This is false because diaphragm and rib muscles do not contract, but relax, during exhalation. So, it is an incorrect option.

Option (b) states that positive pressure brings air into his lungs...

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