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Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

The human AMY-1 gene encodes salivary amylase, an enzyme that breaks down starch. The number of copies of this gene varies, and people who have more copies generally make more of the enzyme. In addition, the average number of AMY-1 copies differs among cultural groups.

George Perry and his colleagues hypothesized that duplications of the AMY-1 gene would confer a selective advantage in cultures in which starch is a large part of the diet. To test this hypothesis, the scientists compared the number of copies of the AMY-1 gene among members of seven cultural groups that differed in their traditional diets. The Figure shows their results.

None of the Mbuti (rainforest hunter-gatherers) had more than 10 copies of AMY-1. Did any European Americans have more than 10 copies of AMY-1?

Chapter 47, Problem 2ITD, The human AMY-1 gene encodes salivary amylase, an enzyme that breaks down starch. The number of

FIGURE Number of copies of the AMY-1 gene among members of cultures with traditional high-starch or low-starch diets.

Source: G. Perry et al. 2007. Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation. Nature Genetics 39:1256–1260.

Summary Introduction

To review:

The comparison of two given cultures for their copies of AMY-1 genes.

Introduction:

The AMY-1 is an alpha-amylase-1 gene. It is encoded in humans as AMY-1 gene. It is found in human saliva as salivary amylase, which breaks down starch. As per its encoding, people who have more copies of it generally make more of the enzyme, but the average number of AMY-1 copies differs among different cultural groups.

Explanation

The graph given below represents the number of AMY-1 gene copies among the different members of the culture in comparison to the traditional low-starch diet and high-starch diet:

It is given that the total number of cumulative proportions equals 1.0. Further, the cumulative proportion of European Americans that having 10 copies equals to 0.9, as mentioned in the problem...

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