Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892



Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
ISBN: 9781305389892
Textbook Problem

What are the four layers of the mammalian gut? Which layer is responsible for peristalsis?

Summary Introduction

To review:

The four layers of the mammalian gut and the layer responsible for peristalsis.


The alimentary canal is a hollow, tubular structure that opens at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is also known as the digestive tract or gut. It consists of various accessory organs and is involved in the digestion of food. It is divided into four basic tissue layers.


Following are the layers of the digestive tract from the lumen outward.

1. Mucosa: The innermost layer of the alimentary canal is the mucosa. It is a mucous membrane lining the lumen. It consists of the stratified squamous epithelium, along with lamina propria (a connective tissue layer) and a thin smooth muscle layer. Glandular cells are also present in it. The nutrients are absorbed by the epithelial cells and the substances for digestion of food are secreted by the glandular cells.

2. Submucosa: It is the second membrane, which is found directly underneath the mucosa. It is a thick connective tissue layer, which contains nerve endings, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Elasticity to the digestive tract is provided by it.

3. Muscularis: The third layer is the muscularis. It is a muscle layer that is made up of an outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle cells and an inner circular layer.

4. Serosa: The serosa is the outer layer of the alimentary wall made up of the connective tissue that produces a slippery aqueous fluid, which lubricates the areas between the digestive organs...

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