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Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692
Chapter 5, Problem 35E
Textbook Problem
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Determine whether each molecule is polar:

a . NH 3 b . CCl 4 c . SO 2 d . CH 4 e . CH 3 OH

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The molecular polarity is to be determined for the given molecules.

Concept Introduction:

A polar bond is formed between elements with different electronegativities. Due to uneven electron distribution, there is charge separation resulting in a dipole. Nonpolar molecules do not have charge separation.

If a molecule has polar bonds, it may or may not be polar, depending on the molecular geometry. Determine the geometry of the molecule using the VSEPR theory and then determine whether the polar bonds add together giving polarity to the molecule or they cancel.

Explanation of Solution

a) NH3

The Lewis structure of NH3 is as follows:

Nitrogen is the central atom. It is surrounded by four electron pairs: three bonding pairs and one lone pair. Thus, according to the VSEPR theory, the geometry of the molecule is trigonal pyramidal. Therefore, NH3 is unsymmetrical. Hence, NH3 is a polar molecule.

b) CCl4

The carbon atom is in the centre, surrounded by four chlorine atoms. The Lewis structure of CCl4 is as follows:

The molecule has polar bonds. There are four electron groups around the carbon and there is no lone pair. Therefore, the molecule is tetrahedral. It is a symmetrical molecule and thus, it is nonpolar.

Hence, CCl4 is a non-polar molecule.

c) SO2

The Lewis structure of SO2 is as follows:

The bonds are polar. Due to the presence of a lone pair on sulfur, the molecule has a bent geometry

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Chapter 5 Solutions

Chemistry In Focus
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