10th Edition
Publisher: CENGAGE L
ISBN: 9781305967359




10th Edition
Publisher: CENGAGE L
ISBN: 9781305967359
Chapter 5, Problem 3CT
Textbook Problem

How do you think a cell regulates the amount of glucose it brings into its cytoplasm from the extracellular environment?

Summary Introduction

To determine:

Regulation of the amount of glucose by the cell that is brought into the cytoplasm from the extracellular environment.


Substances that cannot diffuse through the lipid bilayer cross the cell membrane through the transport proteins embedded in the membrane. The transport proteins are highly specific. Energy is required during movement of a solute against its concentration gradient. Passive transport is the movement of solute along with the concentration gradient. Energy is not required during passive transport. Facilitated diffusion involves a passive transport mechanism.

Explanation of Solution

The body produces glucose from the breakdown of carbohydrate-containing food. Glucose is stored by the liver and muscles in the form of glycogen. Hormones regulate the storage and utilization of glucose by the cells. Blood glucose levels are sensed by the receptors in the pancreas. The hormones, glucagon and insulin, secreted by the pancreatic islets regulate the glucose levels in the body. Low blood glucose levels or hypoglycemia induce the release of glucagon and high blood glucose levels induce the release of insulin by pancreatic beta cells. The key function of insulin is to enable the utilization of glucose by body cells...

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