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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079
Textbook Problem

Give IUPAC names for the four isomeric C5 monocarboxylic acids with saturated carbon chains.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Four isomeric monocarboxylic acids that have five carbon atoms and saturated carbon chain has to be given with their IUPAC names.

Concept Introduction:

Organic compounds are represented shortly by the molecular formula and structural formula.  Each and every compound has its own molecular formula.  Compounds can have same molecular formula but not same structural formula.

Isomers are the compounds that have same molecular formula but different structural formula.  The main difference lies in the way the atoms are arranged in the structure.  Isomers have different chemical and physical properties even when they have same molecular formula.

For naming a carboxylic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, the suffix “-oic” is added to the parent alkane name.

IUPAC rules for naming a carboxylic acid:

  • The longest parent carbon chain is identified that includes the carboxyl group.
  • The parent chain name is changed by replacing the suffix “-e” with “-oic acid”.
  • Numbering is done in a way that the carboxyl group is designated as number 1.  This is not indicated in the part of the name because for carboxylic acid, the carboxyl carbon is always numbered 1.
  • The identity and location of substituents if any has to be determined and this information has to be added in front of the IUPAC name.
  • If the carboxyl functional group is attached to a ring of carbon atoms, the ring is named and “-carboxylic acid” is added as suffix.
Explanation

Monocarboxylic acid contain only one carboxyl group in its structure.  The general structure of monocarboxylic acid is,

In the problem statement the monocarboxylic acid is said to contain five carbon atoms.  Therefore, “R” group in the above structure must contain four carbon atoms.  The various isomeric structures possible are,

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