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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079
Textbook Problem

Give the IUPAC name for each of the acids in Problem 16-31.

  1. a. Acrylic acid
  2. b. Lactic acid
  3. c. Maleic acid
  4. d. Glycolic acid

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

IUPAC name for the acrylic acid has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

For naming a carboxylic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, the suffix “-oic” is added to the parent alkane name.

IUPAC rules for naming a carboxylic acid:

  • The longest parent carbon chain is identified that includes the carboxyl group.
  • The parent chain name is changed by replacing the suffix “-e” with “-oic acid”.
  • Numbering is done in a way that the carboxyl group is designated as number 1.  This is not indicated in the part of the name because for aldehyde, the carboxyl carbon is always numbered 1.
  • The identity and location of substituents if any has to be determined and this information has to be added in front of the IUPAC name.
  • If the carboxyl functional group is attached to a ring of carbon atoms, the ring is named and “-carboxylic acid” is added as suffix.
  • If the compound contains two carboxyl groups, then suffix “-dioic acid” is added after the parent alkane name.
Explanation

Structure of acrylic acid is,

The longest continuous carbon chain has to be found out with the carboxyl group in it.  In this it is a three carbon chain.  The structure contains a double bond between carbon atoms. Hence, the parent is propene.  The given structure contains a carboxyl group.  The carboxylic acid is named by replacing the suffix “-e” with suffix “-oic acid”...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

IUPAC name for the lactic acid has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

For naming a carboxylic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, the suffix “-oic” is added to the parent alkane name.

IUPAC rules for naming a carboxylic acid:

  • The longest parent carbon chain is identified that includes the carboxyl group.
  • The parent chain name is changed by replacing the suffix “-e” with “-oic acid”.
  • Numbering is done in a way that the carboxyl group is designated as number 1.  This is not indicated in the part of the name because for aldehyde, the carboxyl carbon is always numbered 1.
  • The identity and location of substituents if any has to be determined and this information has to be added in front of the IUPAC name.
  • If the carboxyl functional group is attached to a ring of carbon atoms, the ring is named and “-carboxylic acid” is added as suffix.
  • If the compound contains two carboxyl groups, then suffix “-dioic acid” is added after the parent alkane name.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

IUPAC name for the maleic acid has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

For naming a carboxylic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, the suffix “-oic” is added to the parent alkane name.

IUPAC rules for naming a carboxylic acid:

  • The longest parent carbon chain is identified that includes the carboxyl group.
  • The parent chain name is changed by replacing the suffix “-e” with “-oic acid”.
  • Numbering is done in a way that the carboxyl group is designated as number 1.  This is not indicated in the part of the name because for aldehyde, the carboxyl carbon is always numbered 1.
  • The identity and location of substituents if any has to be determined and this information has to be added in front of the IUPAC name.
  • If the carboxyl functional group is attached to a ring of carbon atoms, the ring is named and “-carboxylic acid” is added as suffix.
  • If the compound contains two carboxyl groups, then suffix “-dioic acid” is added after the parent alkane name.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

IUPAC name for the glycolic acid has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

For naming a carboxylic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, the suffix “-oic” is added to the parent alkane name.

IUPAC rules for naming a carboxylic acid:

  • The longest parent carbon chain is identified that includes the carboxyl group.
  • The parent chain name is changed by replacing the suffix “-e” with “-oic acid”.
  • Numbering is done in a way that the carboxyl group is designated as number 1.  This is not indicated in the part of the name because for aldehyde, the carboxyl carbon is always numbered 1.
  • The identity and location of substituents if any has to be determined and this information has to be added in front of the IUPAC name.
  • If the carboxyl functional group is attached to a ring of carbon atoms, the ring is named and “-carboxylic acid” is added as suffix.
  • If the compound contains two carboxyl groups, then suffix “-dioic acid” is added after the parent alkane name.

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