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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079
Textbook Problem

Give the IUPAC name for each of the acids in Problem 16-32.

  1. a. Fumaric acid
  2. b. Pyruvic acid
  3. c. Malic acid
  4. d. Tartaric acid

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

IUPAC name for the fumaric acid has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

For naming a carboxylic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, the suffix “-oic” is added to the parent alkane name.

IUPAC rules for naming a carboxylic acid:

  • The longest parent carbon chain is identified that includes the carboxyl group.
  • The parent chain name is changed by replacing the suffix “-e” with “-oic acid”.
  • Numbering is done in a way that the carboxyl group is designated as number 1.  This is not indicated in the part of the name because for aldehyde, the carboxyl carbon is always numbered 1.
  • The identity and location of substituents if any has to be determined and this information has to be added in front of the IUPAC name.
  • If the carboxyl functional group is attached to a ring of carbon atoms, the ring is named and “-carboxylic acid” is added as suffix.
  • If the compound contains two carboxyl groups, then suffix “-dioic acid” is added after the parent alkane name.
Explanation

Structure of fumaric acid is,

The longest continuous carbon chain has to be found out with the carboxyl group in it.  In this it is a four carbon chain.  The structure contains a double bond in it.  The parent carbon chain is butene.  The given structure contains two carboxyl groups.  The carboxylic acid is named by adding suffix “-dioic acid”.  This gives the name of carboxylic acid as butenedioic acid.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

IUPAC name for the pyruvic acid has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

For naming a carboxylic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, the suffix “-oic” is added to the parent alkane name.

IUPAC rules for naming a carboxylic acid:

  • The longest parent carbon chain is identified that includes the carboxyl group.
  • The parent chain name is changed by replacing the suffix “-e” with “-oic acid”.
  • Numbering is done in a way that the carboxyl group is designated as number 1.  This is not indicated in the part of the name because for aldehyde, the carboxyl carbon is always numbered 1.
  • The identity and location of substituents if any has to be determined and this information has to be added in front of the IUPAC name.
  • If the carboxyl functional group is attached to a ring of carbon atoms, the ring is named and “-carboxylic acid” is added as suffix.
  • If the compound contains two carboxyl groups, then suffix “-dioic acid” is added after the parent alkane name.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

IUPAC name for the malic acid has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

For naming a carboxylic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, the suffix “-oic” is added to the parent alkane name.

IUPAC rules for naming a carboxylic acid:

  • The longest parent carbon chain is identified that includes the carboxyl group.
  • The parent chain name is changed by replacing the suffix “-e” with “-oic acid”.
  • Numbering is done in a way that the carboxyl group is designated as number 1.  This is not indicated in the part of the name because for aldehyde, the carboxyl carbon is always numbered 1.
  • The identity and location of substituents if any has to be determined and this information has to be added in front of the IUPAC name.
  • If the carboxyl functional group is attached to a ring of carbon atoms, the ring is named and “-carboxylic acid” is added as suffix.
  • If the compound contains two carboxyl groups, then suffix “-dioic acid” is added after the parent alkane name.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

IUPAC name for the tartaric acid has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

For naming a carboxylic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, the suffix “-oic” is added to the parent alkane name.

IUPAC rules for naming a carboxylic acid:

  • The longest parent carbon chain is identified that includes the carboxyl group.
  • The parent chain name is changed by replacing the suffix “-e” with “-oic acid”.
  • Numbering is done in a way that the carboxyl group is designated as number 1.  This is not indicated in the part of the name because for aldehyde, the carboxyl carbon is always numbered 1.
  • The identity and location of substituents if any has to be determined and this information has to be added in front of the IUPAC name.
  • If the carboxyl functional group is attached to a ring of carbon atoms, the ring is named and “-carboxylic acid” is added as suffix.
  • If the compound contains two carboxyl groups, then suffix “-dioic acid” is added after the parent alkane name.

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