   Chapter 5, Problem 65GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

The following terms are used extensively in thermodynamics. Define each and give an example. (a) exothermic and endothermic (b) system and surroundings (c) specific heat capacity (d) state function (e) standard state (f) enthalpy change, ΔH (g) standard enthalpy of formation

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Definition of the following terms with example has to be studied.

Concept Introduction:

The following terms are extensively used in thermodynamics.

1. 1. The directionality of the energy transferred as heat between the system and the surroundings can be given in terms of exothermic and endothermic process.
2. 2. State functions are path independent.
3. 3. Standard state is the most stable state for a substance.at standard state.
4. 4. The enthalpy changes accompany chemical reactions.
5. 5. The standard enthalpy of formation of nitrogen gas=0kJ/mol.
Explanation

Exothermic and endothermic:

The energy of the system decreases and the energy of the surroundings increase. In exothermic process qsys<0

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Definition of the following terms with example has to be studied.

Concept Introduction:

The following terms are extensively used in thermodynamics.

1. 1. The directionality of the energy transferred as heat between the system and the surroundings can be given in terms of exothermic and endothermic process.
2. 2. State functions are path independent.
3. 3. Standard state is the most stable state for a substance.at standard state.
4. 4. The enthalpy changes accompany chemical reactions.
5. 5. The standard enthalpy of formation of nitrogen gas=0kJ/mol.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Definition of the following terms with example has to be studied.

Concept Introduction:

The following terms are extensively used in thermodynamics.

1. 1. The directionality of the energy transferred as heat between the system and the surroundings can be given in terms of exothermic and endothermic process.
2. 2. State functions are path independent.
3. 3. Standard state is the most stable state for a substance.at standard state.
4. 4. The enthalpy changes accompany chemical reactions.
5. 5. The standard enthalpy of formation of nitrogen gas=0kJ/mol.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Definition of the following terms with example has to be studied.

Concept Introduction:

The following terms are extensively used in thermodynamics.

1. 1. The directionality of the energy transferred as heat between the system and the surroundings can be given in terms of exothermic and endothermic process.
2. 2. State functions are path independent.
3. 3. Standard state is the most stable state for a substance.at standard state.
4. 4. The enthalpy changes accompany chemical reactions.
5. 5. The standard enthalpy of formation of nitrogen gas=0kJ/mol.

(e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Definition of the following terms with example has to be studied.

Concept Introduction:

The following terms are extensively used in thermodynamics.

1. 1. The directionality of the energy transferred as heat between the system and the surroundings can be given in terms of exothermic and endothermic process.
2. 2. State functions are path independent.
3. 3. Standard state is the most stable state for a substance.at standard state.
4. 4. The enthalpy changes accompany chemical reactions.
5. 5. The standard enthalpy of formation of nitrogen gas=0kJ/mol.

(f)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Definition of the following terms with example has to be studied.

Concept Introduction:

The following terms are extensively used in thermodynamics.

1. 1. The directionality of the energy transferred as heat between the system and the surroundings can be given in terms of exothermic and endothermic process.
2. 2. State functions are path independent.
3. 3. Standard state is the most stable state for a substance.at standard state.
4. 4. The enthalpy changes accompany chemical reactions.
5. 5. The standard enthalpy of formation of nitrogen gas=0kJ/mol.

(g)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: Definition of the following terms with example has to be studied.

Concept Introduction:

The following terms are extensively used in thermodynamics.

1. 1. The directionality of the energy transferred as heat between the system and the surroundings can be given in terms of exothermic and endothermic process.
2. 2. State functions are path independent.
3. 3. Standard state is the most stable state for a substance.at standard state.
4. 4. The enthalpy changes accompany chemical reactions.
5. 5. The standard enthalpy of formation of nitrogen gas=0kJ/mol.

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