# People considering fertility treatments should be aware that such treatments raise the risk of multiple births and that multifetal pregnancies are associated with an increased risk of some birth defects. The Table shows the results of Yiwei Tang’s study of birth defects reported in Florida from 1996 to 2000. Tang compared the incidence of various defects among single and multiple births. She calculated the relative risk for each type of defect based on type of birth, and corrected for other differences that might increase risk: maternal age, income, race, previous adverse pregnancy experience, education, Medicaid participation during pregnancy, and the infant’s sex and number of siblings. A relative risk of less than 1 means a defect occurs less often with multiple births than single births. A relative risk of greater than 1 means that multiples are more likely to have a defect. Prevalence, per 10,000 Live Births, of Various Types of Birth Defects among Multiple and Single Births Prevalence of Defect Relative Risk Multiples Singles Total birth defects 358.50 250.54 1.46 Central nervous system defects 40.75 18.89 2.23 Chromosomal defects 15.15 14.20 0.93 Gastrointestinal defects 28.13 23.44 1.37 Genital/urinary defects 72.85 58.16 1.31 Heart defects 189.71 113.89 1.65 Musculoskeletal defects 20.92 25.87 0.92 Fetal alcohol syndrome 4.33 3.63 1.03 Oral defects 19.84 15.48 1.29 Tang found that multiples have more than twice the risk of single newborns for one type of defect. Which type? Source: Y. Tang et al. 2006. The risk of birth defects in multiple births: A population-based study. Maternal and Child Health Journal 10:75–81.

### Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305389892

### Biology: The Dynamic Science (Mind...

4th Edition
Peter J. Russell + 2 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781305389892

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