Biology (MindTap Course List)

11th Edition
Eldra Solomon + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337392938



Biology (MindTap Course List)

11th Edition
Eldra Solomon + 3 others
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337392938
Chapter 51.3, Problem 6LO
Textbook Problem

Contrast early development, including cleavage, in the echinoderm (or in amphioxus), the amphibian, and the bird, paying particular attention to the importance of the amount and distribution of yolk.

Summary Introduction

To contrast: The early development in the echinoderm, the amphibian, and the bird including the cleavage and the amount and distribution of yolk in their egg cells.

Introduction: Early development of the embryo includes the developmental processes, such as division, multiplication, differentiation of the cells. It does so to increase the count of cells in the organism. The type of cleavage that occurs in a particular egg depends on the distribution of the yolk and the cytoplasm in the egg cell.

Explanation of Solution

The difference between early development of echinoderms, amphibians, and birds is as follows:

1Mesoderm formationIn echinoderms, the blastoderm invaginates the membranes and comes in contact with the ectoderm. I Amphioxus, the invagination leads to expulsion of the blastocoels.In amphibians, mesoderm formation occurs by the formation of mesodermal cells. These cells originate from the endomesoderm.In birds, mesoderm formation does not involve the endoderm. Invagination of mesodermal cells occurs, causing the formation of the mesodermal layer.
2Amount of yolkEchinoderms have less amount of yolk as they need only enough to provide nutrition to the embryo until it becomes a larva.Amphibian eggs have a great amount of yolk in their eggs. This is needed to sustain the development of the embryo till the eggs hatch.Birds need a lot of yolk in their egg cells because they need to sustain the embryos until they hatch.
3Distribution of yolkIn isolecithal eggs, the yolk is evenly distributed into two equal hemispheres.A large quantity of yolk is present in the egg cell of amphibians and it is not distributed uniformly. It is more concentrated at the vegetal pole of the egg.A large quantity of yolk is present in the egg cell of birds and it is not distributed uniformly. It is completely concentrated at the vegetal pole of the egg and there is very less cytoplasm at the animal end of the cell.
4Type of eggEchinoderms have isolecithal eggs...

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Chapter 51 Solutions

Biology (MindTap Course List)
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