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Environmental Science (MindTap Cou...

16th Edition
G. Tyler Miller + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337569613

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Environmental Science (MindTap Cou...

16th Edition
G. Tyler Miller + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337569613
Chapter 6, Problem 4CR
Textbook Problem
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List eight factors that affect birth rates and fertility rates. Define life expectancy and infant mortality rate and explain how they affect the population size of a country. What is migration? What factors can promote migration?

To determine

Eight factors that affect birth and fertility rates. The meaning of terms, “life expectancy” and “infant mortality rate”, and the way in which they affect the population size of a country. The meaning of migration and the factors that can promote it.

Explanation of Solution

Eight factors that determine the birth rate and fertility rate are described as follows:

(i) In less developed countries, children are considered as a part of labor work.

(ii) The cost of raising and educating a child is an important factor that determines the birth and fertility rates.

(iii) The pension system can influence the number of children of a couple.

(iv) Urbanization plays an important role in the birth rate and fertility rate as the people living in urban areas tend to have fewer children as compared to people living in rural areas.

(v) Women empowerment can reduce birth and fertility rates.

(vi) Religious beliefs and tradition increase the birth rate and fertility rate. The people of some countries also refuse to undergo abortion and birth control treatment.

(vii) The average age of marriage must be increased. If women are married at the age of 25 or older, the rate of birth would decline.

(viii) Availability of birth control method can reduce the birth rate.

Life expectancy: Life expectancy is an indicator of the entire health and well being of the population of a region or a country. The average number of infants born in a year can be estimated by the average birth rate of the year. For example, the average global life expectancy from 1955 to 2016 was increased from 48 to 70 years old.

Infant mortality rate: Infant mortality rate is another indicator of the overall health of a region...

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