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Chemistry for Engineering Students

4th Edition
Lawrence S. Brown + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337398909

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Chapter
Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry for Engineering Students

4th Edition
Lawrence S. Brown + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337398909
Chapter 6, Problem 6.87PAE
Textbook Problem
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6.87 Why do valence electrons experience a smaller effective nuclear charge rather than the full charge of the nucleus?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Why valence electrons experience a smaller effective nuclear charge than the full charge of the nucleus should be explained.

Concept introduction:

  • Atomic orbitals describe where the electron is likely to be found.
  • The s orbital is spherical in shape with nucleus at its center.
  • The p and d orbitals are dumbbell shaped with opposite lobes carrying opposite signs.
  • Orbital size increases as we go down the group.

Explanation of Solution

The valence electrons are the outermost electrons in an atom. They lie further away from the nucleus than all the inner shell electrons. The positively charged nucleus exerts attractive forces on electrons. The close lying electrons tend to experience a very strong nuclear attraction...

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Chapter 6 Solutions

Chemistry for Engineering Students
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Ch. 6 - • recognize how quantum numbers arise as a...Ch. 6 - • define the term orbital.Ch. 6 - • identify an orbital (as 1s, 3p, etc.) from its...Ch. 6 - • list the number of orbitals of each type (1s,...Ch. 6 - • sketch the shapes of s and p orbitals and...Ch. 6 - • rank various orbitals in terms of size and...Ch. 6 - • use the Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s...Ch. 6 - • explain the connection between valence electron...Ch. 6 - • define the following properties of atoms: atomic...Ch. 6 - • state how the above properties vary with...Ch. 6 - 6.1 Trace analysis may be carried out via...Ch. 6 - 6.2 Unlike XRF, AAS cannot be used for...Ch. 6 - 6.3 In analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy,...Ch. 6 - 6.4 An X-ray fluorescence instrument must include...Ch. 6 - 6.5 The fluorescence emitted in XRF is also in the...Ch. 6 - 6.6 As part of its analytical capabilities, the...Ch. 6 - 6.7 Arrange the following regions of the...Ch. 6 - 6.8 Calculate the wavelength in meters, of...Ch. 6 - 6.9 If a string of decorative lights includes...Ch. 6 - 6.10 Define the term refraction.Ch. 6 - 6.11 Define the term photon.Ch. 6 - 6.12 Find the energy of a photon with each of the...Ch. 6 - 6.13 Place these types of radiation in order of...Ch. 6 - 6.14 For photon with the following energies,...Ch. 6 - 6.15 For photon with the following energies,...Ch. 6 - 6.16 Various optical disk drives rely on laser...Ch. 6 - 6.17 The laser in most supermarket barcode...Ch. 6 - 6.18 Assume that a microwave oven operates at a...Ch. 6 - 6.19 Fill in the blanks below to complete a...Ch. 6 - 6.20 When light with a wavelength of 58.5 nm...Ch. 6 - 6.21 The electron binding energy fur copper metal...Ch. 6 - 6.22 What was novel about Bohr’s of the atom?Ch. 6 - 6.23 Describe how the Bohr model of the atom...Ch. 6 - 6.24 According to the Bohr model of the atom, what...Ch. 6 - 6.25 Define the term ground state.Ch. 6 - 6.26 The figure below depicts the first four...Ch. 6 - 6.27 Refer w the data and energy-Ievel diagram...Ch. 6 - 6.28 A neon atom cmi light at many wavelengths,...Ch. 6 - 6.29 A mercury atom emits light at many...Ch. 6 - 6.30 How did the observation of electron...Ch. 6 - 6.31 Why do we use a wave function to describe...Ch. 6 - 6.32 What are the mathematical origins of quantum...Ch. 6 - 6.33 What are the allowed values for the principal...Ch. 6 - 6.34 Which of the following represent valid sets...Ch. 6 - 6.35 A particular orbital has n = 4 and l = 2....Ch. 6 - 6.36 Why are there no 2d orbitals?Ch. 6 - 6.34 What is the maximum number of electrons in an...Ch. 6 - 6.38 How many orbitals correspond to each of the...Ch. 6 - 6.39 Define the term nodal plane (or node).Ch. 6 - 6.40 Referring to Figure 6.15, draw a 4p orbitals,...Ch. 6 - 6.41 Consider a 3d orbital. (a) What are the...Ch. 6 - 6.42 Does the fact that the fourth quantum number...Ch. 6 - 6.43 Define the term spin paired.Ch. 6 - 6.44 On what does the Pauli exclusion principle...Ch. 6 - 6.45 Define the term shielding.Ch. 6 - 6.46 What is effective nuclear charge and how does...Ch. 6 - 6.47 Depict two ways to place electrons in the 2p...Ch. 6 - 6.48 Write the ground state electron configuration...Ch. 6 - 6.49 Which of these electron configurations are...Ch. 6 - 6.50 From the list of atoms and ions given,...Ch. 6 - 6.51 halogen lamps rely on the predictable...Ch. 6 - 6.52 Distinguish between the terms core electrons...Ch. 6 - 6.53 If another 50 elements were discovered, how...Ch. 6 - 6.54 Which blocks of the periodic table comprise...Ch. 6 - 6.55 Explain why the s block of the periodic table...Ch. 6 - 6.56 Look at the table of electron configurations...Ch. 6 - 6.57 The magnetic properties of atoms provide...Ch. 6 - 6.58 The more unpaired electrons an element...Ch. 6 - 6.59 How does the effective nuclear charge help...Ch. 6 - 6.60 Use the electron configurations of the alkali...Ch. 6 - 6.61 Using only a periodic table as a guide,...Ch. 6 - 6.62 Define the term ionization energy....Ch. 6 - 6.63 At which ionization for chlorine would you...Ch. 6 - 6.64 Arrange the following atoms in order of...Ch. 6 - 6.65 How do we explain the fact that the...Ch. 6 - 6.66 Which element would you expect to have the...Ch. 6 - 6.67 Answer each of die following questions. (a)...Ch. 6 - 6.68 Indicate which species in each pair has the...Ch. 6 - 6.69 Compare the elements Na, B, Al, and C with...Ch. 6 - 6.70 Rank the following in order of decreasing...Ch. 6 - 6.71 Several excited states of the neon atom are...Ch. 6 - 6.72 LED bulbs offer a fairly new lighting...Ch. 6 - 6.73 How much energy could be saved each year by...Ch. 6 - 6.74 Which of the waves depicted here has the...Ch. 6 - 6.75 What is the relationship between the number...Ch. 6 - 6.76 What is the difference between continuous and...Ch. 6 - 6.77 The p and d orbitals are sometimes referred...Ch. 6 - 6.78 Why does the size of an orbital have an...Ch. 6 - 6.79 How does the charge of electrons provide some...Ch. 6 - 6.80 Describe how valence electron configurations...Ch. 6 - 6.81 Why is there no element to the immediate...Ch. 6 - 6.82 A particular element has the following values...Ch. 6 - 6.83 The graph below shows the first three...Ch. 6 - 6.84 Which graph correctly depicts the first...Ch. 6 - 6.85 The visible lines in the hydrogen atom...Ch. 6 - 6.86 An excited He+ ion returns to the ground...Ch. 6 - 6.87 Why do valence electrons experience a smaller...Ch. 6 - 6.88 Why does the existence of line spectra imply...Ch. 6 - 6.89 The Rb+ ion happens, by coincidence, to be...Ch. 6 - 6.90 How does the screening by core electrons...Ch. 6 - 6.91 What is the only noble gas that does not have...Ch. 6 - 6.92 The photoelectric effect can he used to...Ch. 6 - 6.93 A mercury atom is initially in its lowest...Ch. 6 - 6.94 When a photoelectric effect experiment was...Ch. 6 - 6.95 A metallic sample is known to be barium,...Ch. 6 - 6.96 When a helium atom absorbs light at 58.44 nm,...Ch. 6 - 6.97 Arrange the members of each of the following...Ch. 6 - 6.98 Arrange the following sets of anions in order...Ch. 6 - 6.99 The photoelectric effect can he used in...Ch. 6 - 6.100 Some spacecraft use ion propulsion engines....Ch. 6 - 6.101 Laser welding is a technique in which a...Ch. 6 - 6.102 Ionization gauges for pressure measurement...Ch. 6 - 6.103 Atomic absorption spectroscopy is based on...Ch. 6 - 6.104 The red color in fireworks is the result of...Ch. 6 - 6.105 When we say that the existence of atomic...Ch. 6 - 6.106 When Bohr devised his model for the atom,...Ch. 6 - 6.107 The photochemical reaction that initiates...

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