   Chapter 7, Problem 14PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Depict the electron configuration for phosphorus using an orbital box diagram and noble gas notation. Give one possible set of four quantum numbers for each of the electrons beyond those of the preceding noble gas.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The phosphorus (P) configuration and quantum number has to be derived.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals. We consider the electronic configuration of neon atom is 1s22s22p6, the electronic configurations describes each electrons as moving independently orbitals, an average filed created ay all other orbitals.

The aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Quantum numbers: These terms are explained for the distribution of electron density in an atom. They are derived from the mathematical solution of Schrodinger’s equation for the hydrogen atom.  The types of quantum numbers are the principal quantum number (n), the angular momentum quantum number (l), the magnetic quantum number (ml) and the electron spin quantum number (ms). Each atomic orbital in an atom is categorized by a unique set of the quantum numbers.

Explanation

Phosphorus (P) is the third period element in periodic table, has three electrons with corresponding orbital shells (n=3). Hence the two paired and three unpaired electrons are assigned to valence (3s) and (3p) electron shells.

So the element is precedes by the noble gas argon, so the electron configuration is [Ne]3s23p3. The electronic configuration notations methods are shown below.

AtomicnumberofPhosphorus(P)=15Complete (spdf)notationof(P)=1s22s22p63s23p3Orbital filling method=1s22s22p63s23p3spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ne]3s23p3[AtomicnumberofNeon=10]Orbitalboxnotation       [Ne]3s23p3

Assigning quantum number:  The possible set of quantum number for the (3s) electrons is shown below

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