   Chapter 7, Problem 1PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Write the electron configurations for P and CI using both spdf notation and orbital box diagrams. Describe the relationship between each atom's electron configuration and its position in the periodic table.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electronic configuration of P and Cl; relationship between each atom’s electron configuration and its position in the periodic table has to be described.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Explanation
• Electronic configuration of simple phosphorus (P) atom filling method is shown below:

According to periodic table, the phosphorus (P) atom and its atomic number (15), it is fifteenth element in the third period (n=3) and it is in Group-5A of the p-block elements.

Analyzing for electron filling:

1. 1. The (spdf) and orbital box notations, assign the (15) electrons for phosphorus (P) to orbitals based on the order of filling.
2. 2. The noble gas notation: The first (10) electrons are identified by the symbol of the (Ne) it is a one of noble gas. The remaining (5) electrons are assigning to the 3s and 3p sub-shells. Hence the Hund’s rule is fallowed in the box notation.

Atomicnumberofphosphorus(P)=15Complete (spdf)notationof(P)=1s22s22p63s23p3Orbital filling method=1s22s22p63s23p3spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ne]3s33p3Orbitalboxnotation       = [Ne]3s23p3

Phosphorus (P): The electronic configuration of phosphorus atom P= 1s22s22p43s23p3 (or) [Ne]3s23p3

• Electronic configuration of simple chlorine (Cl) atom filling method is shown below:

According to periodic table, the chlorine (Cl) atom and its atomic number (17), it is third period (n=3) and it is in the 17 column (Group-7A) of the p-block.

1. 3. The (spdf) and orbital box notations, assign the (17) electrons for chlorine (Cl) to orbitals based on the order of filling.
2. 4. The noble gas notation: The first (10) electrons are identified by the symbol of the (Ne) it is a one of noble gas. The remaining (7) electrons are assigning to the 3s and 3p sub-shells. Hence the Hund’s rule is fallowed in the box notation.

Atomicnumberofchlorine(Cl)=17Complete (spdf)notationof(Cl)=1s22s22p63s23p5Orbital filling method=1s22s22p63s23p5spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ne]3s33p5Orbitalboxnotation       = [Ne]3s23p5

Chlorine (Cl): The electron filling method of chlorine (Cl) atom and electronic configuration has Cl= 1s22s22p43s23p5(or) [Ne]3s23p5

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