Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The values of n and are useful to determine the order of filling (Aufbau principle). Use n and to determine which orbital. 4f, 5d. or 6s. will fill first.

Interpretation Introduction


The given statement (4f, 5d and 6s) orbital filling methods has to be explained using Aufbau principle.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.


The orbital filling methods rules are we discussed below.

  1. 1. Electrons are assigned to subshell on order of increasing (n+l) value.
  2. 2. The two subshell with the same value of (n+l) electrons are assigned first to the subshell of lower (n).

  According to this principle the 4f, 5d and 6s orbital filling methods are shown below.

  • Consider the orbital 4f: where the principle quantum number ‘n’ is 4; azimuthal quantum number of f-orbital is 3. Therefore, (n+l) is (4+3=7).
  • Consider the orbital 5d: where the principle quantum number ‘n’ is 5; azimuthal quantum number of d-orbital is 2. Therefore, (n+l) is (5+2=7)

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