   Chapter 7, Problem 22PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Using orbital box diagrams, depict an electron configuration for each of the following ions: (a) Na+, (b) AI3+, (c) Ge2+, and (d) F–.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electronic configuration has to be depicted for Na+ using orbital box diagram and noble gas electronic configuration method.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Explanation

Let us consider the orbital filling method of Sodium (Na+) ions.

Given the Sodium atom has loss of one electron from outermost shells.

Atomicnumberofsodium(Na)=11spdfwith orbtital notation=[1s22s22p63s1]Orbital filling method       1s22s22p63s1spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ne]3s1Orbitalboxnotation       = [Ne]3s1

When (Na) was oxidized to (Na+) ions, it lose one electron from outermost (3s) orbitals, hence this orbital notation method shows below

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electronic configuration has to be depicted for Al3+ using orbital box diagram and noble gas electronic configuration method.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electronic configuration has to be depicted for Ge2+ using orbital box diagram and noble gas electronic configuration method.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electronic configuration has to be depicted for F- ion using orbital box diagram and noble gas electronic configuration method.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

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