Nutrition Through The Life Cycle

7th Edition
Brown + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337919333



Nutrition Through The Life Cycle

7th Edition
Brown + 1 other
ISBN: 9781337919333
Textbook Problem

Thirty-five-year-old Stacey delivers twin boys at 30 weeks’ gestation: baby Andrew is 2 lb, 9 oz, and 13.5 in. long; baby Mark is 1 lb, 13 oz, and 14 in. long. Stacey had a difficult pregnancy that included severe nausea and vomiting, heartburn, preeclampsia, and preterm labor.

Stacey is very committed to breastfeeding and was able to use a hospital-grade electronic breast pump approximately six hours after delivery. She pumps every 2–3 hours or eight to nine times daily in order to establish her milk supply. At the end of the first week, Stacey is pumping about 14–16 oz/day per baby, and by 3½ weeks she is pumping 4–5 oz per breast at each pumping. Stacey wakes at night to pump when she is full. She has placed the pumping equipment by the bed and become adept at pumping, getting out of bed only to put the milk in the refrigerator. At two weeks postpartum, Stacey experiences a plugged duct and has difficulty emptying the right breast for two days.

The twin boys have suffered the usual preterm difficulties with breathing, apnea, and bradycardia. Initially the twins are tube-fed. As their condition improves, baby Andrew is first put to breast three weeks after his birth, and baby Mark several weeks later. Baby Mark has more difficulty learning to latch on and suck and is growing more slowly than is his brother. Multiple interventions are used to achieve breastfeeding success. On advice from a lactation consultant, Stacey uses a nipple shield to help baby Mark latch on. In response to slow weight gain in baby Mark, the lactation consultant recommends that the baby receive hindmilk, which is often higher in fat and calories.

Mark and Andrew are released from the hospital a day after their due date. Stacey continues using the nipple shield for several weeks with Mark, trying without the nipple shield every few days. After three weeks at home, baby Mark is able to latch on without the nipple shield. The twins are breastfed and also receive up to three bottles of fortified expressed breast milk or premature infant formula per day for the first two months at home. The babies take feedings equally well from bottle or breast.

List potential indications for each intervention listed.

Summary Introduction

To list: Potential indications for each diagnosis in this case.

Introduction: Infants who are born in between 34 and 37 weeks of the pregnancy are considered as late-preterm infants. Breast feeding is an important phase in the life of both the mother and the infant. Breast milk provides the necessary nutrients, immunological functions, and psychological support to the growing infant in their early stages of development.


Person S is 35-years old woman who delivered two premature boys at 30 weeks’ gestation. Person A (baby) is 2lb, 9oz, and 13.5in long. Person M (baby) is 1lb, 13oz, and 14in long. Person S had various difficulties during her pregnancy. Person S uses a hospital-grade electronic breast pump after 6-hours of delivery. In every 2–3 hours and 8–9 times daily, she pumps in order to create her milk supply. After 6–7 days, person S is able to pump about 14-16oz/day per baby, and by 25 days after delivery, the amount of milk pumping became 4-5oz per breast at each pumping. At two weeks postpartum, Person S experiences a plugged duct and face difficulty while emptying her right breast for two days.

The two boys had suffered from various preterm difficulties with other symptoms like breathing, apnea, and bradycardia. Initially, due to preterm difficulties, the two boys were tube-fed...

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