   Chapter 7, Problem 26PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

One compound found in alkaline batteries is NiOOH, a compound containing Ni3+ ions. When the battery is discharged, the Ni3+ is reduced to Ni2+ ions [as in Ni(OH)2]. Using orbital box diagrams and the noble gas notation, show electron configurations of these ions. Are either of these ions paramagnetic?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

For the Nickel ions given Ni2+ and Ni3+ ions electronic configuration and magnetic properties has to be derived using its orbital notation box and noble gas electron filling method.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Paramagnetic: The Paramagnetic properties are due to the presence of some unpaired electrons, and from the realignment of the electron paths caused by the external magnetic field.

Diamagnetic properties: In diamagnetic materials all the electron are paired so there is no permanent net magnetic moment per atom.

Explanation
• Now we consider the orbital filling method for Nickel element.

AtomicnumberofNickel(Ni)=28spdfwith orbtital notation=[1s22s22p63s23p63d84s2Orbital filling method       1s22s22p63s23p63d84s2spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ar]3d84s2Orbitalboxnotation       =  [Ar]3d84s2

The electronic configuration of Nickel (Ni) = 1s22s22p63s23p63d84s2 and noble gas configuration of [Ar]3d84s2

• Let us consider the orbital filling method of Nickel (Ni2+) ions

Than Nickel (Ni) atom were oxidized to (Ni2+) ions, it lost for two electrons in outermost (4s) orbitals.

This electronic filling method is shown below.

AtomicnumberofNickel(Ni)=28Loss of four electrons in Nickelatoms=28-2=26spdfwith orbtital notation=[1s22s22p63s23p63d84s0Orbital filling method       1s22s22p63s2

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