Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Arrange the following elements in order of increasing size: Ca, Rb, P, Ge, and Sr. (Try doing it without looking at Figure 7.5; then check yourself by looking up the necessary atomic radii.)

Interpretation Introduction


The given elements have to be arranged in order of increasing size.

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electronegativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

  • First we consider the S-block elements:

The Rubidium (Rb) atomic radius greater than the Calcium, and Strontium (Ca, Sr) atoms because addition of shells for (Rb) atoms. Hence atomic number of Rb=38 Calcium, Strontium atomic number (Z=20 and 37), so (Rb) atoms having larger atomic radius than (Ca, Sr) atoms (Figure: 1). The attraction between the nucleus and valence electrons decreases as moving down a group.


             Figure: 1

Hence the increasing size of atoms Ca<Sr<Rb

  • Let us consider fallowing p-block

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