   Chapter 7, Problem 32PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Arrange the following atoms in order of increasing ionization energy: Li, K, C, and N.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The given atoms have to be arranged in increasing order of ionization energy.

Concept Introduction:

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electronegativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Explanation

The order of ionization energy is discussed given below.

• Analyzing for Lithium (Li) atom

The ionization energies always have positive values; the electron far from the nucleus generally has smaller ionization energy and electron closer to the nucleus has larger ionization energy. Let us consider the lithium atom (Li), Here Li is s-block elements and its ionization energy and orbital filling methods are shown below.

First ionization energy (IE1) = 513 kJ/mol.

Li(g)Li+(g)+ e1s22s1becomes 1s22s0

• Analyzing for Potassium (K) atom

The atomic number of potassium (Z=19) and 4th period position in periodic table (it is alkaline metal in S-block element) than this ionization energy is discussed below.

First ionization energy (IE1) = 419 kJ/mol.

K(g) K+(g) + e-[Ar]4s1   becomes  [Ar]3s0

• Analyzing for Carbon (C) atom

The atomic number of carbon (Z=6) and 2nd period position in periodic table (this is non-metal in P-block element); the ionization energy is discussed below.

First ionization energy (IE1) = 1086 kJ/mol

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