   Chapter 7, Problem 35PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Explain each answer briefly. (a) Place the following elements in order of increasing ionization energy: F, O, and S. (b) Which has the largest ionization energy: O, S, or Se? (c) Which has the most negative electron attachment enthalpy: Se, Cl, or Br? (d) Which has the largest radius: O2−, F−, or F?

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The increasing order of ionization energy has to be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Explanation
• Analyzing for Fluorine (F) atom

The atomic number of Fluorine (Z=9) and 2nd period position in periodic table (this is Group-16, Halogen family in P-block series) than this ionization energy is discussed below.

First ionization energy of Fluorine atom is, (IE1) = 1681 kJ/mol.

F(g)---F+(g) + e-Electronconfiguration:[He]2s22p5        [He]2s22p41s22s22p5------- 1s22s22p4

• Analyzing for Oxygen (O) atom

The atomic number of oxygen (Z=8) and 2nd period position in periodic table (this is Group-15, Oxygen family in P-block series) than this ionization energy is discussed below.

First ionization energy is(IE1)= 1314 kJ/mol.

O(g)---O+(g) + e-Electronconfiguration:  1s22s22p4------- 1s22s22p3[He]2s22p4        [He]2s22p3

• Analyzing for Sulfur (S) atom

The atomic number of Al (Z=16) and 3rd period position in periodic table (this is Group-15, Oxygen family in P-block series) than this ionization energy is discussed below

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The largest ionization energy has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The most negative electron attachment enthalpy has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The ionization energy, more electronegative and atomic radius should be explain given the statement of different P-block elements and its ions.

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

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