   Chapter 7, Problem 3PS

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Using spdf notation, write the electron configurations for atoms of chromium and iron, two of the major components of stainless steel.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The chromium (Cr) and Iron (Fe) electronic configurations of has to be derived using its spdf notation and orbital box diagram.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Explanation
• Electronic configuration of simple chromium (Cr) atom filling method is shown below.

According to periodic table, the chromium (Cr) atom and its atomic number (24), it is the 24th element in the third period (n=4) and it is (Group-6) of the d-block elements.

Analyzing for electron filling method:

1. 1. The spdf and orbital box notations, assign the 24 electrons for chromium (Cr) to orbitals based on the order of filling.
2. 2. The first 18 electrons are occupying 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p orbitals and remaining 6 six electrons filling 3d and 4s orbital shells.
3. 3. The noble gas notation: The first (10) electrons are identified by the symbol of the (Ne) it is a one of noble gas. The remaining (5) electrons are assigning to the 3s and 3p sub-shells. Hence the Hund’s rule is fallowed in the box notation.

Atomicnumberofchromium(Cr)=24Complete (spdf)notationof(Cr)=1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1Orbital filling method=1s22s22p63s23p63d54s1spdfwith noble gas notation=[Ar]3d54s1Orbitalboxnotation       = [Ar]3d54s1

• Let us consider the electronic configurations of (Fe) atoms orbital filling methods are discussed below

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