   Chapter 7, Problem 44GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

The rare earth elements, or lanthanides, commonly exist as 3+ ions. Using an orbital box diagram and noble gas notation, show the electron configurations of the following elements and ions. (a) Ce and Ce3+ (cerium) (b) Ho and Ho3+ (holmium)

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron configuration of Cerium and (Ce3+) has to be predicted using an orbital box diagram and noble gas configuration.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Explanation
• Electronic configuration for Cerium (Ce) system:

AtomicnumberofCerium(Ce)=58Complete (spdf)notationof(Ce)=1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p64f15d16s2Orbital filling method=1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d85s25p64f65d06s2spdfwith noble gas notation=[Xe] 4f15d16s2[AtomicnumberofXe=54]Orbitalboxnotation       = [Xe]4f15d16s2

Hence, the electron configuration of cerium is [Xe] 4f15d16s2

• Electronic configuration for Cerium (Ce3+) system:

When Cerium (Ce) was oxidized into (Ce3+) ions, it loses three electrons from outermost (5d, 6s) shells

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron configuration of Holmium and (Ho3+) has to be predicted using an orbital box diagram and noble gas configuration.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

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