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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

A neutral atom has two electrons with n = 1, eight electrons with n = 2, eight electrons with n = 3, and two electrons with n = 4. Assuming this element is in its ground state, supply the following information:

  1. (a) atomic number
  2. (b) total number of s electrons
  3. (c) total number of p electrons
  4. (d) total number of d electrons
  5. (e) Is the element a metal, metalloid, or nonmetal?

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The atomic number for n =1, 2, and 4 has to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Quantum numbers: These terms are explained for the distribution of electron density in an atom. They are derived from the mathematical solution of Schrodinger’s equation for the hydrogen atom.  The types of quantum numbers are the principal quantum number (n), the angular momentum quantum number (l), the magnetic quantum number (ml) and the electron spin quantum number (ms). Each atomic orbital in an atom is categorized by a unique set of the quantum numbers.

Explanation

Given: Presence of (n) shells having 18 electrons in each shells

The term ‘n’ indicates the principle quantum number.

  • For n =1, the first principle shell contains only s-orbital represented as 1s and the orbital contains given two electrons that represented as 1s2.
  • For n = 2, the second principle shell contains both s-orbital and p-orbital represented as 2s and 2p the orbital contains given eight electrons that represented as 2s22p6.
  •  For n =3, the third principle shell contains s-orbital p-orbital and d-orbital represented as 3s, 3p and 3d ; the orbital contains given eight electrons that represented as 3s23p63d0

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The total number of s-electrons in 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 has to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Quantum numbers: These terms are explained for the distribution of electron density in an atom. They are derived from the mathematical solution of Schrodinger’s equation for the hydrogen atom.  The types of quantum numbers are the principal quantum number (n), the angular momentum quantum number (l), the magnetic quantum number (ml) and the electron spin quantum number (ms). Each atomic orbital in an atom is categorized by a unique set of the quantum numbers.

c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The total number of p-electrons in 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 has to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Quantum numbers: These terms are explained for the distribution of electron density in an atom. They are derived from the mathematical solution of Schrodinger’s equation for the hydrogen atom.  The types of quantum numbers are the principal quantum number (n), the angular momentum quantum number (l), the magnetic quantum number (ml) and the electron spin quantum number (ms). Each atomic orbital in an atom is categorized by a unique set of the quantum numbers.

d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The total number of p-electrons in 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 has to be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Quantum numbers: These terms are explained for the distribution of electron density in an atom. They are derived from the mathematical solution of Schrodinger’s equation for the hydrogen atom.  The types of quantum numbers are the principal quantum number (n), the angular momentum quantum number (l), the magnetic quantum number (ml) and the electron spin quantum number (ms). Each atomic orbital in an atom is categorized by a unique set of the quantum numbers.

e)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element is either a metal, metalloid, or non-metal has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons (e-) of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Quantum numbers: These terms are explained for the distribution of electron density in an atom. They are derived from the mathematical solution of Schrodinger’s equation for the hydrogen atom.  The types of quantum numbers are the principal quantum number (n), the angular momentum quantum number (l), the magnetic quantum number (ml) and the electron spin quantum number (ms). Each atomic orbital in an atom is categorized by a unique set of the quantum numbers.

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