   Chapter 7, Problem 54GQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Answer (he following questions about the elements with the electron configurations shown here:A = [Ar]4s2 B =[Ar]3d104s24p5 (a) Is element A a metal, metalloid, or nonmetal? (b) Is element B a metal, metalloid, or nonmetal? (c) Which element is expected to have the larger ionization energy? (d) Which element has the smaller atomic radius?

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Metal A is either metal, non-metal, or metalloid has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU

Explanation

The atomic number of the element is equal to the number of electrons in the same element. Thus, the given electron configuration [Ar]

b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Metal A is either metal, non-metal, or metalloid has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU

c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The element that has the highest ionization energy has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU

d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The smaller atomic radius element has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below.

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Electron affinity: The atoms is closely related to ΔEAH. The (EA) is equal in magnitude but opposite is sign to the internal energy change associated with a gas atom adding an electron.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronaffinityEA=-ΔU

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