Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Place the following ions in order of decreasing size: K+, Cl, S2−, and Ca2+

Interpretation Introduction


Decreasing order of size for the given ions K+,Cl-, S2-and Ca2+ has to be ranked.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbital’s. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.


As the electron is added into the valence sell of the atom, the nuclear attraction with the valence electron is decreased as the distance increases than before; on removing electron from the atom increases the effective nuclear charge with the valence electrons and the size reduces.

Thus, the radius of given ions in (Figure-1) are shown below.


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