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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Two elements in the second transition series (Y through Cd) have four unpaired electrons in their 3+ ions. What elements fit this description?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Two elements in the second transition series from Y through Cd have four unpaired electrons in their (III) state has to be identified.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Explanation

The electron configuration of (III) oxidation state of second transition elements:

Yttrium is [Kr]4d15s2becomes[Kr]4d05s0 contains no unpaired electrons.

Zirconium is [Kr]4d25s2becomes[Kr]4d15s0 contains only one unpaired electron.

Niobium is [Kr]4d35s2becomes[Kr]4d25s0 contains two unpaired electrons.

Molybdenum is [Kr]4d45s2becomes[Kr]4d35s0 contains three unpaired electrons.

Technetium is [Kr]4d55s2becomes[Kr]4d45s0 contains four unpaired electrons.

Ruthenium is [Kr]4d65s2becomes[Kr]4d55s0 contains five unpaired electrons

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