   Chapter 7, Problem 68SCQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Which ions in the following list are not likely to be found in chemical compounds: K2+, Cs+, Al4+, F2−, and S2+? Explain briefly.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Out of the given ions that are not likely to be found in chemical compounds has to be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Electron attachment enthalpy: ΔEAH is defined as the enthalpy change occurring when a gaseous atom adds an electron forming a gaseous anion.

A(g)+e-A-(g)----ElectronattachmententhalpyEAH

Explanation
1. 1. Potassium has one extra electron in outer shell and donates to attain noble gas configuration. Thus, the Potassium becomes Potassium ion (K+). Hence, it is unlikely to from a (K2+) ion.
2. 2. Cesium atom has one extra electron in outer shell and donates to attain noble gas configuration. Thus, the cesium Cs becomes cesium ion (Cs+). Hence, it is likely to from a (Cs+) ion.
3. 3.  Aluminum:  Electronic configuration [Ne]3s23p1 is a p-block element and has only three valence electrons; removing more than three electrons is impossible and is unlikely to form a (Al4+) ion.
4. 4.  Fluorine: Electronic configuration [He]2s22p5 is a p-block element and

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