   Chapter 7, Problem 69SCQ

Chapter
Section
Textbook Problem

Answer the following questions about first ionization energies. (a) Generally ionization energies increase on proceeding across a period, but this is not true for magnesium (738 kJ/mol) and aluminium (578 kJ/mol). Explain this observation. (b) Explain why the ionization energy of phosphorus (1012 kJ/mol) is greater than that of sulphur (1000 kJ/mol) when the general trend in ionization energies in a period would predict the opposite.

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The ionization energy of Magnesium and Aluminum has to be compared.

Concept Introduction:

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Explanation

Noblegaselectronicconfiguration(Mg):[Ne]3s2[Ne]3s1+1e-[lossofoneelectron]

The removal of electron from the completely filled or half-filed orbital requires more energy than partially filled orbital. Here, the valence electrons are occupied in completely filled orbital and the ionization energy is higher

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The ionization energy of Phosphorus and Sulfur has to be compared.

Concept Introduction:

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy= Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

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