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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Using spdf and noble gas notations, write electron configurations for atoms of the following elements. (Try to do this by looking at the periodic table but not at Table 7.3.)

(a) Strontium, Sr. This element is named for a town in Scotland.

(b) Zirconium, Zr. The metal is exceptionally resistant to corrosion and so has important industrial applications. Moon rocks show a surprisingly high zirconium content compared with rocks on Earth.

(c) Rhodium, Rh. This metal is used in jewelry and in catalysts in industry.

(d) Tin, Sn. The metal was used in the ancient world. Alloys of tin (solder, bronze, and pewter) are important.

a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electron configuration of  Strontium (Sr) has to be predicted using its orbital notation box and noble gas electron filling method.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals. The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

Explanation

Let us consider the orbital filling method of Strontium (Sr)

  1. 1. The spdf and orbital box notations, assign the 38 electrons for Sr to orbitals based on the order of filling.
  2. 2. The noble gas notation: The first 36 electrons are identified by the symbol of the krypton (Kr) it is a one of noble gas. The remaining (2) electrons are assigning to the 5s, sub-shells. Thus, the Hund’s rule is followed as shown in the box notation.

  AtomicnumberofStrontium(Sr)= 38Complete (spdf)notationof=1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p65s2Orbital filling method=1s22s22p63s23p6

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Given the d-block element Zirconium (Zr) electronic configurations has to be derived using its orbital notation box and noble gas electron filling method.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electronic configuration of Rhodium using its orbital notation box and noble gas electron filling method has to be predicted.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The electronic configuration of Tin (Sn) atom has to be predicted using its orbital notation box and noble gas electron filling method.

Concept Introduction:

Electronic configuration: The electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of a given molecule or respective atoms in atomic or molecular orbitals.

The important there rules for electronic configuration given below:

Aufbau principle: This rule statues that ground state of an atom or ions electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. If consider the 1s shell is filled the 2s subshell is occupied.

Hund's Rule: The every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.

Pauli exclusion rule: an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction.

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