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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

The bond lengths in Cl2, Br2, and I2 are 200, 228, and 266 pm, respectively. Knowing that the tin radius is 141 pm, estimate the bond distances in Sn—Cl, Sn—Br, and Sn—I. Compare the estimated values with the experimental values of 233, 250, and 270 pm. respectively.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Compare the estimated values with the experimental values have to be done.

Concept Introduction:

Atomic radius: The concept explain chemical element is a measured of the size of its atoms, in other words to measure the distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of number of electrons.

Bond distance: In molecular geometry, bond length or bond distance is the average distance between nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule. It is a transferable property of a bond between atoms of fixed types, relatively independent of the rest of the molecule.

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

Explanation

Generally the atomic radii increase down the group and increases along the period. The radius of a (Cl) atoms is assumed to be half experimentally determined distance between the centers of the two atoms (198 pm), so the radius of the one (Cl) atom is 99 pm. Similarly the (Br-Br) bond distance is 228 pm, the radius of 114 pm assigned to single bromine atoms. Than (I-I) bond distance is 266 pm.  

  • Let us consider (Sn-Cl) molecule:

The radius if a (Sn-Cl) atom is assumed to be half experimentally determined distance between the centers of the two atoms. Here, the atomic radii of single chlorine atom (99 pm) and Tin (Sn) atomic radii (Sn=141 pm), so this radius of (Sn-Cl) molecule 233 pm Figure 1.

     

       Figure 1

b). Let us consider the (Sn-Br) molecule.

The radius if a (Sn-Br) atom is assumed to be half experimentally determined distance between the centers of the two atoms, Here the atomic radii of single Bromine atom (114 pm) and Tin (Sn) atomic radii (Sn=141 pm), so this radius of (Sn-Br) molecule 250 pm Figure 2...

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